Experimental Infection Research

If we are attacked by a virus, the immune system reacts within a matter of hours. Highly specialized immune cells recognise the pathogen and release highly efficient messengers, which activate the immune system. These messengers include the interferons, which ensure that individual host cells are mildly infected . At the same time, interferons can also influence the course of the immune response and the memory of the immune system. Without these messengers virus infections - which we normally overcome almost unnoticeably - become fatal within just a few days.


The group Experimental Infection Research is based at the TWINCORE in Hannover.


Bache, C.; Spreitzer, I.; Becker, B.; Loeschner, B.; Rosskopf, U.; Hanschmann, K. M.; Schwanig, M.; Schneider, C. K.; Lieb, B. & Montag, T. (2012), 'Bordetella Pertussis Toxin does not induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human whole blood', Med Microbiol Immunol201(3) , 327-335 .

Kernbauer, E.; Maier, V.; Stoiber, D.; Strobl, B.; Schneckenleithner, C.; Sexl, V.; Reichart, U.; Reizis, B.; Kalinke, U.; Jamieson, A.; Mueller, M. & Decker, T. (2012), 'Conditional Stat1 Ablation Reveals the Importance of Interferon Signaling for Immunity to Listeria monocytogenes Infection', PLoS Pathog8(6) , e1002763 .

Kalinke, U. & Prinz, M. (2012), 'Endogenous, or therapeutically induced, type I interferon responses differentially modulate Th1/Th17-mediated autoimmunity in the CNS', Immunol Cell Biol90(5) , 505-509 .

Kremer, M.; Suezer, Y.; Volz, A.; Frenz, T.; Majzoub, M.; Hanschmann, K. M.; Lehmann, M. H.; Kalinke, U. & Sutter, G. (2012), 'Critical role of perforin-dependent CD8+ T cell immunity for rapid protective vaccination in a murine model for human smallpox', PLoS pathogens8(3) , e1002557 .

Schneider, C. K.; Borg, J. J.; Ehmann, F.; Ekman, N.; Heinonen, E.; Ho, K.; Hoefnagel, M. H.; van der Plas, R. M.; Ruiz, S.; van der Stappen, A. J.; Thorpe, R.; Tiitso, K.; Tsiftsoglou, A. S.; Vleminckx, C.; Waxenecker, G.; Welin, M.; Weise, M. & Trouvin, J. H. (2012), 'In support of the European Union biosimilar framework', Nat Biotechnol30(8) , 745-748 .

Maciulaitis, R.; D'Apote, L.; Buchanan, A.; Pioppo, L. & Schneider, C. K. (2012), 'Clinical development of advanced therapy medicinal products in europe: evidence that regulators must be proactive', Mol Ther20(3) , 479-482 .

Weissmueller, S.; Semmler, L. Y.; Kalinke, U.; Christians, S.; Mueller-Berghaus, J. & Waibler, Z. (2012), 'ICOS-LICOS interaction is critically involved in TGN1412-mediated T cell activation', Blood119(26) , 6268-6277 .

Stormer, M.; Arroyo, A.; Brachert, J.; Carrero, H.; Devine, D.; Epstein, J. S.; Gabriel, C.; Gelber, C.; Goodrich, R.; Hanschmann, K. M.; Heath, D. G.; Jacobs, M. R.; Keil, S.; de Korte, D.; Lambrecht, B.; Lee, C. K.; Marcelis, J.; Marschner, S.; McDonald, C.; McGuane, S.; McKee, M.; Muller, T. H.; Muthivhi, T.; Pettersson, A.; Radziwon, P.; Ramirez-Arcos, S.; Reesink, H. W.; Rojo, J.; Rood, I.; Schmidt, M.; Schneider, C. K.; Seifried, E.; Sicker, U.; Wendel, S.; Wood, E. M.; Yomtovian, R. A. & Montag, T. (2012), 'Establishment of the first International Repository for Transfusion-Relevant Bacteria Reference Strains: ISBT Working Party Transfusion-Transmitted Infectious Diseases (WP-TTID), Subgroup on Bacteria.', Vox Sang102(1) , 22-31 .


Arico, E.; Monque, D. M.; D'Agostino, G.; Moschella, F.; Venditti, M.; Kalinke, U.; Allen, D. J.; Nash, A. A.; Belardelli, F. & Ferrantini, M. (2011), 'MHV-68 producing mIFNalpha1 is severely attenuated in vivo and effectively protects mice against challenge with wt MHV-68.', Vaccine29(23) , 3935-3944 .

Buttel, I. C.; Chamberlain, P.; Chowers, Y.; Ehmann, F.; Greinacher, A.; Jefferis, R.; Kramer, D.; Kropshofer, H.; Lloyd, P.; Lubiniecki, A.; Krause, R.; Mire-Sluis, A.; Platts-Mills, T.; Ragheb, J. A.; Reipert, B. M.; Schellekens, H.; Seitz, R.; Stas, P.; Subramanyam, M.; Thorpe, R.; Trouvin, J. H.; Weise, M.; Windisch, J. & Schneider, C. K. (2011), 'Taking immunogenicity assessment of therapeutic proteins to the next level.', Biologicals39(2) , 100-109 .

Chopy, D.; Detje, C. N.; Lafage, M.; Kalinke, U. & Lafon, M. (2011), 'The type I interferon response bridles rabies virus infection and reduces pathogenicity.', J Neurovirol17(4) , 353-367 .

Dann, A.; Poeck, H.; Croxford, A.; Gaupp, S.; Kierdorf, K.; Knust, M.; Pfeifer, D.; Maihoefer, C.; Endres, S.; Kalinke, U.; Meuth, S.; Wiendl, H.; Knobeloch, K.; Akira, S.; Waisman, A.; Hartmann, G. & Prinz, M. (2011), 'Cytosolic RIG-I-like helicases act as negative regulators of sterile inflammation in the CNS', Nat Neurosci15(1) , 98-106 .

Diamond, M. S.; Kinder, M.; Matsushita, H.; Mashayekhi, M.; Dunn, G. P.; Archambault, J. M.; Lee, H.; Arthur, C. D.; White, J. M.; Kalinke, U.; Murphy, K. M. & Schreiber, R. D. (2011), 'Type I interferon is selectively required by dendritic cells for immune rejection of tumors.', J Exp Med208(10) , 1989-2003 .

Dominguez, P. M.; Lopez-Bravo, M.; Kalinke, U. & Ardavin, C. (2011), 'Statins inhibit iNOSmediated microbicidal potential of activated monocyte-derived dendritic cells by an IFNbeta-dependent mechanism.', Eur J Immunol41(11) , 3330-3339 .

Eichler, H. G.; Abadie, E.; Breckenridge, A.; Flamion, B.; Gustafsson, L. L.; Leufkens, H.; Rowland, M.; Schneider, C. K. & Bloechl-Daum, B. (2011), 'Bridging the efficacy-effectiveness gap: a regulator's perspective on addressing variability of drug response.', Nat Rev Drug Discov10(7) , 495-506 .

Grabski, E.; Waibler, Z.; Schule, S.; Kloke, B.; Sender, L.; Panitz, S.; Cichutek, K.; Schweizer, M. & Kalinke, U. (2011), 'Comparative analysis of transduced primary human dendritic cells generated by the use of three different lentiviral vector systems.', Mol Biotechnol47(3) , 262-269 .

Gratz, M. S.; Suezer, Y.; Kremer, M.; Volz, A.; Majzoub, M.; Hanschmann, K. M.; Kalinke, U.; Schwantes, A. & Sutter, G. (2011), 'N1L is an ectromelia virus virulence factor and essential for in vivo spread upon respiratory infection.', J Virol85(7) , 3557-3569 .

Kalinke, U.; Bechmann, I. & Detje, C. N. (2011), 'Host strategies against virus entry via the olfactory system.', Virulence2(4) , 367-370 .

Reiss, M.; Buttel, I. C. & Schneider, C. K. (2011), '[Report from the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT). Pitfalls on the way from concept to medical treatment with advanced therapy medicinal products].', Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz54(7) , 822-830 .

Schulke, S.; Burggraf, M.; Waibler, Z.; Wangorsch, A.; Wolfheimer, S.; Kalinke, U.; Vieths, S.; Toda, M. & Scheurer, S. (2011), 'A fusion protein of flagellin and ovalbumin suppresses the T(H)2 response and prevents murine intestinal allergy.', J Allergy Clin Immunol128(6) , 1340-1348 e1312 .

Schwandt, T.; Schumak, B.; Gielen, G. H.; Jungerkes, F.; Schmidbauer, P.; Klocke, K.; Staratschek-Jox, A.; van Rooijen, N.; Kraal, G.; Ludwig-Portugall, I.; Franken, L.; Wehner, S.; Kalff, J. C.; Weber, O.; Kirschning, C.; Coch, C.; Kalinke, U.; Wenzel, J.; Kurts, C.; Zawatzky, R.; Holzmann, B.; Layland, L.; Schultze, J. L.; Burgdorf, S.; den Haan, J. M.; Knolle, P. A. & Limmer, A. (2011), 'Expression of type I interferon by splenic macrophages suppresses adaptive immunity during sepsis', Embo J31(1) , 201-213 .

Seitz, R.; Schneider, C. K. & Hengel, H. (2011), '[Advanced therapy medicinal products Scientific, medical, economic, and ethical aspects].', Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz54(7) , 789-790 .

Weise, M.; Bielsky, M. C.; De Smet, K.; Ehmann, F.; Ekman, N.; Narayanan, G.; Heim, H. K.; Heinonen, E.; Ho, K.; Thorpe, R.; Vleminckx, C.; Wadhwa, M. & Schneider, C. K. (2011), 'Biosimilars-why terminology matters.', Nat Biotechnol29(8) , 690-693 .

Williams, S. K.; Fairless, R.; Weise, J.; Kalinke, U.; Schulz-Schaeffer, W. & Diem, R. (2011), 'Neuroprotective effects of the cellular prion protein in autoimmune optic neuritis.', Am J Pathol178(6) , 2823-2831 .


Al Moussawi, K.; Ghigo, E.; Kalinke, U.; Alexopoulou, L.; Mege, J. L. & Desnues, B. (2010), 'Type I interferon induction is detrimental during infection with the Whipple's disease bacterium, Tropheryma whipplei.', PLoS Pathog6(1) , e1000722 .

Buttel, I. C.; Voller, K. & Schneider, C. K. (2010), 'Immunogenicity and its Impact on Benefit/Risk Considerations in the Authorisation of Biopharmaceuticals.', Curr Drug Saf5(4) , 287-292 .

Frenz, T.; Waibler, Z.; Hofmann, J.; Hamdorf, M.; Lantermann, M.; Reizis, B.; Tovey, M. G.; Aichele, P.; Sutter, G. & Kalinke, U. (2010), 'Concomitant type I IFN receptor-triggering of T cells and of DC is required to promote maximal modified vaccinia virus Ankara-induced T-cell expansion', Eur J Immunol40(10) , 2769-2777 .

Goetz, K. B.; Pfleiderer, M. & Schneider, C. K. (2010), 'First-in-human clinical trials with vaccines-what regulators want.', Nat Biotechnol28(9) , 910-916 .

Goossens, P.; Gijbels, M. J.; Zernecke, A.; Eijgelaar, W.; Vergouwe, M. N.; van der Made, I.; Vanderlocht, J.; Beckers, L.; Buurman, W. A.; Daemen, M. J.; Kalinke, U.; Weber, C.; Lutgens, E. & de Winther, M. P. (2010), 'Myeloid type I interferon signaling promotes atherosclerosis by stimulating macrophage recruitment to lesions', Cell Metab12(2) , 142-153 .

Ilchmann, A.; Burgdorf, S.; Scheurer, S.; Waibler, Z.; Nagai, R.; Wellner, A.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Henle, T.; Kurts, C.; Kalinke, U.; Vieths, S. & Toda, M. (2010), 'Glycation of a food allergen by the Maillard reaction enhances its T-cell immunogenicity: role of macrophage scavenger receptor class A type I and II.', J Allergy Clin Immunol125(1) , 175-183, e171-111 .

Kern, M.; Popov, A.; Scholz, K.; Schumak, B.; Dandji, D.; Limmer, A.; Eggle, D.; Sacher, T.; Zawatzky, R.; Holtappels, R.; Reddehase, M. J.; Hartmann, G.; Debey-Pascher, S.; Diehl, L.; Kalinke, U.; Koszinowski, U.; Schultze, J. & Knolle, P. A. (2010), 'Virally infected mouse liver endothelial cells trigger CD8+ T-cell immunity.', Gastroenterology138(1) , 336-46 .

Kochs, G.; Bauer, S.; Vogt, C.; Frenz, T.; Tschopp, J.; Kalinke, U. & Waibler, Z. (2010), 'Thogoto virus infection induces sustained type I interferon responses that depend on RIG-I-like helicase signaling of conventional dendritic cells. ', J Virol84 (23) , 12344-12350 .

Lang, P. A.; Recher, M.; Honke, N.; Scheu, S.; Borkens, S.; Gailus, N.; Krings, C.; Meryk, A.; Kulawik, A.; Cervantes-Barragan, L.; Rooijen, N. V.; Kalinke, U.; Ludewig, B.; Hengartner, H.; Harris, N.; Häussinger, D.; Ohashi, P. S.; Zinkernagel, R. M. & Lang, K. S. (2010), 'Tissue macrophages suppress viral replication and prevent severe immunopathology in an interferon-I-dependent manner in mice.', Hepatology51(1) , 25-32 .

Malinarich, F. H.; Grabski, E.; Worbs, T.; Chennupati, V.; Haas, J. D.; Schmitz, S.; Candia, E.; Quera, R.; Malissen, B.; Forster, R.; Hermoso, M. & Prinz, I. (2010), 'Constant TCR triggering suggests that the TCR expressed on intestinal intraepithelial gammadelta T cells is functional in vivo', Eur J Immunol40(12) , 3378-88 .

Murikinati, S.; Juttler, E.; Keinert, T.; Ridder, D. A.; Muhammad, S.; Waibler, Z.; Ledent, C.; Zimmer, A.; Kalinke, U. & Schwaninger, M. (2010), 'Activation of cannabinoid 2 receptors protects against cerebral ischemia by inhibiting neutrophil recruitment.', FASEB J24(3) , 788-798 .

Prinz, M. & Kalinke, U. (2010), 'New lessons about old molecules: how type I interferons shape Th1/Th17-mediated autoimmunity in the CNS.', Trends Mol Med16(8) , 379-386 .

Schneider, C. K.; Salmikangas, P.; Jilma, B.; Flamion, B.; Todorova, L. R.; Paphitou, A.; Haunerova, I.; Maimets, T.; Trouvin, J. H.; Flory, E.; Tsiftsoglou, A.; Sarkadi, B.; Gudmundsson, K.; O'Donovan, M.; Migliaccio, G.; Ancans, J.; Maciulaitis, R.; Robert, J. L.; Samuel, A.; Ovelgonne, J. H.; Hystad, M.; Fal, A. M.; Lima, B. S.; Moraru, A. S.; Turcani, P.; Zorec, R.; Ruiz, S.; Akerblom, L.; Narayanan, G.; Kent, A.; Bignami, F.; Dickson, J. G.; Niederwieser, D.; Figuerola-Santos, M. A.; Reischl, I. G.; Beuneu, C.; Georgiev, R.; Vassiliou, M.; Pychova, A.; Clausen, M.; Methuen, T.; Lucas, S.; Schussler-Lenz, M.; Kokkas, V.; Buzas, Z.; MacAleenan, N.; Galli, M. C.; Line, A.; Gulbinovic, J.; Berchem, G.; Fraczek, M.; Menezes-Ferreira, M.; Vilceanu, N.; Hrubisko, M.; Marinko, P.; Timon, M.; Cheng, W.; Crosbie, G. A.; Meade, N.; di Paola, M. L.; VandenDriessche, T.; Ljungman, P.; D'Apote, L.; Oliver-Diaz, O.; Buttel, I. & Celis, P. (2010), 'Challenges with advanced therapy medicinal products and how to meet them.', Nat Rev Drug Discov9(3) , 195-201 Review .

Schussler-Lenz, M. & Schneider, C. K. (2010), 'Clinical trials with advanced therapy medicinal products. ', Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz53(1) , 68-74 Review .

Sender, L. Y.; Gibbert, K.; Suezer, Y.; Radeke, H. H.; Kalinke, U. & Waibler, Z. (2010), 'CD40 ligand-triggered human dendritic cells mount interleukin-23 responses that are further enhanced by danger signals. ', Mol Immunol47(6) , 1255-1261 .


Please find an overview about older publications here