Hepatitis C virus is transmitted by direct blood-to-blood contact: while blood transfusions were the main problem prior to 1990, transmission by blood products is no longer an issue in Germany - owing to highly sensitive tests. Nowadays, insufficient hygiene is the main hepatitis C virus infection risk. What can we do against the spread of this virus due to deficient hygiene? Prevention is the silver bullet for control of the hepatitis C virus. Another aspect in the focus of the members of the Virus Transmission research group: The envelope of the virus also plays a central role for infection of the host, the host's defence strategies and the production and release of new viruses.