Infection Immunology

An infection can be seen as a fight between a microbe and our body’s defence mechanisms. The microbe is trying to multiply and disseminate, while the different components of our immune system will work together trying to stop this process. This is not an easy mission for our body because microbes have learned how to hide, evade or even destroy some of the components of the immune system as well as how to resist antibiotic treatment. The focus of our research is to understand the battle between microbes and our immune defences. If we know the different tricks and mechanisms employed by the microbes to breach our defences we will be able to design new strategies to counteract and disarm the attacking microorganisms.


  • Chaves-Moreno,D.; Wos-Oxley,M.L.; Jauregui,R.; Medina,E.; Oxley,A.P.; Pieper,D.H.; (2015). Application of a Novel "Pan-Genome"-Based Strategy for Assigning RNAseq Transcript Reads to Staphylococcus aureus Strains. PLoS ONE: 10 12, e0145861 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145861 HZI repository PubMed
  • Fiebig,A.; Loof,T.G.; Babbar,A.; Itzek,A.; Koehorst,J.J.; Schaap,P.J.; Nitsche-Schmitz,D.P.; (2015). Comparative Genomics of Streptococcus pyogenes M1 isolates differing in virulence and propensity to cause systemic infection in mice. International Journal of Medical Microbiology: 305 6, 532-54314384221 WEBURLS
  • Ben,Hania W.; Joseph,M.; Schumann,P.; Bunk,B.; Fiebig,A.; Sproer,C.; Klenk,H.P.; Fardeau,M.L.; Spring,S.; (2015). Complete genome sequence and description of Salinispira pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel spirochaete isolated form a hypersaline microbial mat. 10, 7 DOI: 10.1186/1944-3277-10-7 HZI repository PubMed
  • Horst,S.A.; Itzek,A.; Klos,A.; Beineke,A.; Medina,E.; (2015). Differential Contributions of the Complement Anaphylotoxin Receptors C5aR1 and C5aR2 to the Early Innate Immune Response against Staphylococcus aureus Infection. 4 4, 722-738 PubMed
  • Lau,S.C.K.; Riedel,T.; Fiebig,A.; Han,J.; Huntemann,M.; Petersen,J.; Ivanova,N.N.; Markowitz,V.; Woyke,T.; Göker,M.; Kyrpides,N.C.; Klenk,H.P.; Qian,P.Y.; (2015). Genome sequence of the pink-pigmented marine bacterium Loktanella hongkongensis type strain (UST950701û009PT), a representative of the Roseobacter group. Standards in Genomic Sciences: 10 AUGUST201519443277 DOI: 10.1186/s40793-015-0050-9 HZI repository PubMed
  • Riedel,T.; Spring,S.; Fiebig,A.; Scheuner,C.; Petersen,J.; Goker,M.; Klenk,H.P.; (2015). Genome sequence of the Roseovarius mucosus type strain (DSM 17069(T)), a bacteriochlorophyll a-containing representative of the marine Roseobacter group isolated from the dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. 10, 17 DOI: 10.1186/1944-3277-10-17 HZI repository PubMed
  • Ruiz-Cruz,S.; Espinosa,M.; Goldmann,O.; Bravo,A.; (2015). Global Regulation of Gene Expression by the MafR Protein of Enterococcus faecalis. 6, 1521 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01521 HZI repository PubMed
  • Tsatsaronis,J.A.; Ly,D.; Pupovac,A.; Goldmann,O.; Rohde,M.; Taylor,J.M.; Walker,M.J.; Medina,E.; Sanderson-Smith,M.L.; (2015). Group A Streptococcus Modulates Host Inflammation by Manipulating Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Cell Death Responses. 7 6, 612-6221662811X WEBURLS
  • Tuchscherr,L.; Kreis,C.A.; Hoerr,V.; Flint,L.; Hachmeister,M.; Geraci,J.; Bremer-Streck,S.; Kiehntopf,M.; Medina,E.; Kribus,M.; Raschke,M.; Pletz,M.; Peters,G.; Loffler,B.; (2015). Staphylococcus aureus develops increased resistance to antibiotics by forming dynamic small colony variants during chronic osteomyelitis. 71, 438-448 PubMed
  • Loof,T.G.; Goldmann,O.; Naudin,C.; Mörgelin,M.; Neumann,Y.; Pils,M.C.; Foster,S.J.; Medina,E.; Herwald,H.; (2015). Staphylococcus aureus-induced clotting of plasma is an immune evasion mechanism for persistence within the fibrin network. Microbiology: 161 3, 621-62713500872 WEBURLS
  • Tebartz,C.; Horst,Sarah A.; Sparwasser,Tim; Hühn,Jochen; Beineke,A.; Peters,G.; Medina,Eva; (2014). A Major Role for Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and a Minor Role for Regulatory T Cells in Immunosuppression during Staphylococcus aureus Infection. Journal of Immunology: 194 3, 1100-1111 PubMed
  • Szafranska,A.K.; Oxley,A.P.A.; Chaves-Moreno,D.; Horst,S.A.; Roßlenbroich,S.; Peters,G.; Goldmann,O.; Rohd,M.; Sinha,B.; Pieper,D.H.; Löffler,B.; Jauregui,R.; Wos-Oxley,M.L.; Medina,E.; (2014). High-resolution transcriptomic analysis of the adaptive response of staphylococcus aureus during acute and chronic phases of osteomyelitis. MBio: 5 6, e0177521612129 DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01775-14 HZI repository PubMed
  • Mehraj,Jaishri; Akmatov,Manas K.; Strömpl,Julia; Gatzemeier,Anja; Layer,F.; Werner,G.; Pieper,Dietmar H.; Medina,Eva; Witte,W.; Pessler,Frank; Krause,Gerard; (2014). Methicillin-Sensitive and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage in a Random Sample of Non-Hospitalized Adult Population in Northern Germany. PLoS ONE: 9 9, e107937 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0107937 HZI repository PubMed
  • Scheb-Wetzel,Matthias; Rohde,Manfred; Bravo,A.; Goldmann,Oliver; (2014). New insights into the antimicrobial effect of mast cells against Enterococcus faecalis. Infection and Immunity: 82 11, 4496-4507 DOI: 10.1128/IAI.02114-14 HZI repository PubMed
  • Yuan,D.; Zhu,Z.; Tan,X.; Liang,J.; Zeng,C.; Zhang,J.; Chen,J.; Ma,L.; Dogan,A.; Brockmann,G.; Goldmann,Oliver; Medina,Eva; Rice,A.D.; Moyer,R.W.; Man,X.; Yi,K.; Li,Y.; Lu,Q.; Huang,Y.; Huang,S.; (2014). Scoring the collective effects of SNPs: association of minor alleles with complex traits in model organisms. Science China Life Sciences: 57, 876-888 PubMed
  • Loof,Torsten G.; Deicke,Christin; Medina,Eva; (2014). The role of coagulation/fibrinolysis during Streptococcus pyogenes infection. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology: 4, 128 DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2014.00128 HZI repository PubMed
  • Michelucci,A.; Cordes,T.; Ghelfi,J.; Pailot,A.; Reiling,N.; Goldmann,O.; Binz,T.; Wegner,A.; Tallam,A.; Rausell,A.; Buttini,M.; Linster,C.L.; Medina,Eva; Balling,R.; Hiller,K.; (2013). Immune-responsive gene 1 protein links metabolism to immunity by catalyzing itaconic acid production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA: 110 19, 7820-7825 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1218599110 HZI repository PubMed
  • Rosendahl,Alva; Bergmann,Silke; Hammerschmidt,S.; Goldmann,Oliver; Medina,Eva; (2013). Lung dendritic cells facilitate extrapulmonary bacterial dissemination during pneumococcal pneumonia. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology: 3, 21 DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2013.00021 HZI repository PubMed
  • Ko,Y.P.; Freitag,C.M.; Kuipers,A.; Jongerius,I.; Medina,Eva; van Rooijen,W.J.; Spaan,A.N.; van Kessel,K.P.M.; Höök,M.; Rooijkkers,S.H.M.; (2013). Phagocytosis escape by a bacterial protein that connects complement and coagulation proteins at the bacterial surface. PLoS Pathogens: 9 12, e1003816 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003816 HZI repository PubMed
  • Horst,Sarah A.; Linner,A.; Beineke,A.; Lehne,Sabine; Höltje,Claudia; Hecht,A.; Norrby-Teglund,A.; Medina,Eva; Goldmann,Oliver; (2013). Prognostic Value and Therapeutic Potential of TREM-1 in Streptococcus pyogenes- Induced Sepsis. Journal of Innate Immunology: 5 6, 581-590 DOI: 10.1159/000348283 HZI repository PubMed
  • Horst,S.A.; Hoerr,V.; Beineke,A.; Kreis,C.; Tuchscherr,L.; Kalinka,J.; Lehne,S.; Schleicher,I.; Kohler,G.; Fuchs,T.; Raschke,M.J.; Rohde,Manfred*; Peters,G.; Faber,C.; Loffler,B.; Medina,Eva*; (2012). A Novel Mouse Model of Staphylococcus aureus Chronic Osteomyelitis That Closely Mimics the Human Infection: An Integrated View of Disease Pathogenesis. American Journal of Pathology: 181 4, 1206-1214 PubMed
  • Niemann,S.; Ehrhardt,C.; Medina,Eva*; Warnking,K.; Tuchscherr,L.; Heitmann,V.; Ludwig,S.; Peters,G.; Loffler,B.; (2012). Combined Action of Influenza Virus and Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Provokes Severe Lung Epithelium Damage. Journal of Infectious Diseases: 206 7, 1138-1148 PubMed
  • Wos-Oxley,M.; Bleich,A.; Oxley,A.P.; Kahl,S.; Janus,L.; Smoczek,A.; Nahrstedt,H.; Pils,M.; Taudien,S.; Platzer,M.; Hedrich,H.J.; Medina,Eva*; Pieper,Dietmar*; (2012). Comparative evaluation of establishing a human gut microbial community within rodent models. Gut Microbes: 3 3 PubMed
  • Schindler,D.; Gutierrez,Maximiliano G.; Beineke,A.; Rauter,Y.; Rohde,Manfred; Foster,S.; Goldmann,O.; Medina,Eva; (2012). Dendritic Cells Are Central Coordinators of the Host Immune Response to Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection. American Journal of Pathology: 181 4, 1327-1337 PubMed
  • Goldmann,O.; Medina,Eva*; (2012). The expanding world of extracellular traps: not only neutrophils but much more. Frontiers in Immunology: 3, 420 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2012.00420 HZI repository PubMed
  • Medina,Eva*; Goldmann,O.; (2011). In vivo and ex vivo protocols for measuring the killing of extracellular pathogens by macrophages. Current Protocols in Immunology: Chapter 14, Unit14.19 PubMed
  • Abel,J.; Goldmann,O.; Ziegler,C.; Höltje,C.; Smeltzer,M.S.; Cheung,A.L.; Bruhn,D.; Rohde,Manfred*; Medina,Eva*; (2011). Staphylococcus aureus evades the extracellular antimicrobial activity of mast cells by promoting its own uptake. Journal of Innate Immunity: 3 5, 495-507 DOI: 10.1159/000327714 HZI repository PubMed
  • Tuchscherr,L.; Medina,Eva*; Hussain,M.; Volker,W.; Heitmann,V.; Niemann,S.; Holzinger,D.; Roth,J.; Proctor,R.A.; Becker,K.; Peters,G.; Loffler,B.; (2011). Staphylococcus aureus phenotype switching: an effective bacterial strategy to escape host immune response and establish a chronic infection. EMBO Molecular Medicine: 3 3, 129-141 DOI: 10.1002/emmm.201000115 HZI repository PubMed
  • Nippe,N.; Varga,G.; Holzinger,D.; Loffler,B.; Medina,Eva*; Becker,K.; Roth,J.; Ehrchen,J.M.; Sunderkotter,C.; (2011). Subcutaneous Infection with S. aureus in Mice Reveals Association of Resistance with Influx of Neutrophils and Th2 Response. Journal of Investigative Dermatology: 131 1, 125-132 DOI: 10.1038/jid.2010.282 HZI repository PubMed
  • Ziegler,C.; Goldmann,O.; Hobeika,E.; Geffers,Robert*; Peters,G.; Medina,Eva*; (2011). The dynamics of T cells during persistent Staphylococcus aureus infection: from antigen-reactivity to in vivo anergy. EMBO Molecular Medicine: 3 11, 652-666 PubMed
  • Loof,T.G.; Goldmann,O.; Gessner,A.; Herwald,H.; Medina,Eva*; (2010). Aberrant inflammatory response to Streptococcus pyogenes in mice lacking myeloid differentiation factor 88. American Journal of Pathology: 176 2, 754-763 PubMed
  • Goldmann,O.; Lehne,S.; Medina,Eva*; (2010). Age-related susceptibility to Streptococcus pyogenes infection in mice: underlying immune dysfunction and strategy to enhance immunity. Journal of Pathology: 220 5, 521-529 DOI: 10.1002/path.2664 HZI repository PubMed
  • Goldmann,O.; Hertzen,E.; Hecht,A.; Schmidt,H.; Lehne,S.; Norrby-Teglund,A.; Medina,Eva*; (2010). Inducible cyclooxygenase released prostaglandin E2 modulates the severity of infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. Journal of Immunology: 185 4, 2372-2381 PubMed
  • Medina,Eva*; (2010). Murine model of cutaneous infection with Streptococcus pyogenes. Methods in Molecular Biology: 602, 395-403 PubMed
  • Medina,Eva*; (2010). Murine model of pneumococcal pneumonia. Methods in Molecular Biology: 602, 405-410
  • Medina,Eva*; (2010). Murine model of polymicrobial septic peritonitis using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Methods in Molecular Biology: 602, 411-415
  • Medina,Eva*; (2009). Beyond the NETs. Journal of Innate Immunity: 1, 175
  • Goldmann,O.; Rohde,Manfred*; Medina,Eva*; (2009). Infection biology: Streptococcus pyogenes - Lethal for macrophages. Biospektrum: 15 4, 380-182
  • Medina,Eva*; (2009). Neutrophil Extracellular Traps: a strategic tactic to defeat pahtogens with potential consequences for the host. Journal of Innate Immunity: 1, 176-180
  • von Kockritz-Blickwede,M.; Konrad,S.; Foster,S.; Gessner,J.E.; Medina,Eva*; (2009). Protective role of complement C5a in an experimental model of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Journal of Innate Immunity: 2 1, 87-92 PubMed
  • Goldmann,O.; Sastalla,I.; Wos-Oxley,M.; Rohde,Manfred*; Medina,Eva*; (2009). Streptococcus pyogenes induces oncosis in macrophages through the activation of an inflammatory programmed cell death pathway. Cellular Microbiology: 11 1, 138-155 PubMed
  • Oehmcke,S.; Shannon,O.; von Kockritz-Blickwede,Maren*; Morgelin,M.; Linder,A.; Olin,A.I.; Bjorck,L.; Herwald,H.; (2009). Treatment of invasive streptococcal infection with a peptide derived from human high molecular weight kininogen. Blood: 114 2, 444-451 PubMed
  • Loof,T.G.; Goldmann,O.; Medina,Eva*; (2008). Immune recognition of Streptococcus pyogenes by dendritic cells. Infection and Immunity: 76 6, 2785-2792 DOI: 10.1128/IAI.01680-07 HZI repository PubMed
  • von Kockritz-Blickwede,M.; Rohde,Manfred*; Oehmcke,S.; Miller,L.S.; Cheung,A.L.; Herwald,H.; Foster,S.; Medina,Eva*; (2008). Immunological mechanisms underlying the genetic predisposition to severe Staphylococcus aureus infection in the mouse model. American Journal of Pathology: 173 6, 1657-1668 PubMed
  • Von Köckritz-Blickwede,M.; Goldmann,O.; Thulin,P.; Heinemann,K.; Norrby-Teglund,A.; Rohde,Manfred*; Medina,Eva*; (2008). Phagocytosis-independent antimicrobial activity of mast cells by means of extracellular trap formation. Blood:, doi: 10.1182/blood-2007-07-104018 DOI: 10.1182/blood-2007-07-104018 HZI repository PubMed
  • Schulze,K.; Goldmann,Oliver*; Medina,Eva*; Guzmán,Carlos A.*; (2008). The FAI protein of group C streptococci acts as a mucosal adjuvant by the specific targeting and activation of B cells. International Journal of Medical Microbiology: 298 1-2, 3-10
  • Klein,C.; Medina,Eva*; Sander,L.; Roskams,T.; Müller,Werner*; Trautwein,C.; Goldmann,O.; (2007). Contribution of IL-6/gp130 signaling in hepatocytes to the inflammatory response in mice infected with Streptococcus pyogenes. Journal of Infectious Diseases: 196 5, 755-762 DOI: 10.1086/520090 HZI repository PubMed
  • Luthje,P.; von Kockritz-Blickwede,Maren*; Schwarz,S.; (2007). Identification and characterization of nine novel types of small staphylococcal plasmids carrying the lincosamide nucleotidyltransferase gene lnu(A). Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy: 59 4, 600-606 PubMed
  • Loof,T.G.; Rohde,Manfred*; Chhatwal,Gursharan S.*; Jung,S.; Medina,Eva*; (2007). The contribution of dendritic cells to host defenses against Streptococcus pyogenes. Journal of Infectious Diseases: 196, 1794-1803
  • Goldmann,O.; von Kockritz-Blickwede,M.; Holtje,C.; Chhatwal,Gursharan S*.; Geffers,Robert*; Medina,Eva*; (2007). Transcriptome analysis of murine macrophages in response to infection with Streptococcus pyogenes reveals an unusual activation program. Infection and Immunity: 75 8, 4148-4157 DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00181.07 HZI repository PubMed
  • Dinkla,Kathrin*; Sastalla,I.; Godehardt,A.W.; Janze,N.; Chhatwal,Gursharan S*.; Rohde,Manfred*; Medina,Eva*; (2007). Upregulation of capsule enables Streptococcus pyogenes to evade immune recognition by antigen-specific antibodies directed to the G-related ?2-macroglobulin-binding protein GRAB located on the bacterial surface. Microbes and Infection: 9 8, 922-931
  • Schulze,K.; Medina,Eva*; Guzmán,Carlos A.*; (2006). Intranasal immunization with serum opacity factor (SOF) of Streptococcus pyogenes fails to protect mice against lethal mucosal challenge with a heterologous strain. Vaccine: 24, 1446-1450 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.06.039
  • Medina,Eva*; Ryan,L.; LaCourse,R.; North,R.J.; (2006). Superior virulence of Mycobacterium bovis over Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) for Mtb-resistant and Mtb-susceptible mice is manifest as an ability to cause extrapulmonary disease. Tuberculosis: 86 1, 20-27
  • Siegert,J.; Sastalla,I.; Chhatwal,Gursharan S*.; Medina,Eva*; (2006). Vaccination equally enables both genetically susceptible and resistant mice to control infection with group A streptococci. Microbes and Infection: 8 2, 347-353 DOI: 10.1016/j.micinf.2005.06.024 HZI repository PubMed
  • Goldmann,O.; Chhatwal,G.S.; Medina,E.; (2005). Contribution of NK cells to the pathogenesis of septic shock induced by Streptococcus pyogenes in mice. Journal of Infectious Diseases: 191, 1280-1286
  • Medina,E.; Lengeling,A.; (2005). Genetic regulation of host responses to Group A Streptococcus in mice. Briefings in Functional Genomics & Proteomics: 4, 248-257
  • Schulze,K.; Goldmann,O.; Toppel,A.; Medina,E.; Guzmán,C.A.; (2005). The FAI protein of group C streptococci targets B cells and exhibits adjuvant activity. Vaccine: 23, 1408-1413
  • Medina,Eva*; (2004). Models of group A streptococcal diseases: a review of current status. Drug Discovery Today: Disease Models: 1, 65-71


  • Prof Dr Eva Medina

    Eva Medina

    Head of the Research Group Infection Immunology

    +49 531 6181-4500



Bachelor & Master
Are you interested in a bachelor or master thesis? We are looking forward to your request!

Audio Podcast

  • Dem alternden Immunsystem auf die Sprünge helfen
    Wir werden älter und mit dem Alter wird unser Immunsystem schwächer. Infektionskrankheiten haben ein leichtes Spiel in einem gealterten Körper – vor allem schwere Infektionen mit Bakterien häufen sich jenseits der 60 und können leicht lebensbedrohlich werden. Nur woran liegt das? Und lässt sich wirklich nichts dagegen unternehmen? Eva Medina und Oliver Goldmann hatten eine Idee. Wie sie dem Immunsystem auf die Sprünge helfen wollen, hören Sie hier...