Epidemiology

Epidemiology conducts research on health and disease at the population level – infection epidemiology is concerned with contagious diseases. Their tools and methods are systematic queries, clinical examinations and laboratory diagnostic documentation for both healthy and afflicted individuals, as well as statistical analysis of the compiled data. Causes and risk factors for infections can thus be identified. Infectious diseases epidemiology contributes to the development of preventive measures, early detection and therapy for diseases. Moreover, it examines the efficacy of such measures. Thus epidemiology ties in with scientific findings in basic research as well as medicine, and examines these processes at the population level.

Epidemiological lab

One of the top priorities of the department of epidemiology is to analyse infectious diseases and their risk factors on a population based scale. One could assess infections and the vaccination status of individuals using a symptom based approach, making use of questionnaire based tools.

Our epidemiologic laboratory proposes to use other means, independent of the ability to recall past events correctly; detecting pathogens and markers of previous infections in bio samples like nasal swabs, feces, sputum and blood of subjects.

iPlex Technology from Sequenom

In order to model how a wave of influenza infection spreads, we measure the duration of viral colonization of the nares. The longer the virus is shed, the more people could infected should one sneeze. To analyse influenza colonization of the nose, we look for the viral genome in a nasal swab using a new mass spectrometry based technique called iPlex from Sequenom.

Furthermore, we are involved in analysing the propagation of antibiotic resistant pathogens like Methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA). In a Brunswick based study (s-swab study) people were asked to send in monthly nasal swabs. The swabs were subsequently analysed for bacterial growth on culture plates with and without certain antibiotics.

Streakingof the nasal swab on blood agar

We are also working on measuring specific antibodies against pathogens in the blood to detect past infections. This would be helpful in determining the effectivity and ultimately, the necessity  of vaccinations. We use a technique called multiplex serologie (Waterboer T. et al. Clin Chem. 2005) which requires  very small amounts (microliters) of serum, enables one to test multiple samples at the same time, and  is able to detect antibodies against many different pathogens.

Leader

News

  • SORMAS - the future of epidemic surveillance
    Epidemiologists and IT experts from Germany and Nigeria have jointly developed an innovative app to help fight epidemics like ebola or cholera - the Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System (SORMAS). This video explains why a tool like SORMAS is urgently needed and introduces the unique approach that makes SORMAS so powerful.

Audio Podcast

  • Staphylococcus aureus – ein Leben in der Nase
    2000 zufällig ausgewählte Braunschweiger Bürger haben in diesem Juni Post vom HZI erhalten – mit der Bitte, an einer Studie über die Verbreitung von Staphylococcus aureus teilzunehmen. Varianten des Bakteriums sind unter dem Kürzel MRSA als Krankenhauskeime zu trauriger Berühmtheit gelangt. Unsere Wissenschaftler wollen nun erforschen, wie viele Gesunde – außerhalb von Krankenhäusern – mit diesem Keim Leben. Und sie suchen nach Risikofaktoren, die Staphylococcus aureus die Besiedlung des Menschen erleichtern. Begleiten Sie Frank Pessler und Jaishri Mehraj ein Stück in die Welt der Epidemiologie...
  • Proben und Fragebögen für die Infektionsforschung - Die Nationale Kohorte
    Diabetes mellitus, Krebs, Arterienverkalkung und diverse Infektionen sind Volkskrankheiten, über die wir viel zu wenig wissen. Mit der Nationalen Kohorte wollen Wissenschaftler diesen Krankheiten auf den Grund gehen und neue Strategien gegen sie entwickeln. Frank Pessler und Manas Akmatov nehmen die Infektionen ins Visier. Lassen Sie sich erklären, wie ihnen 225.000 Menschen dabei helfen sollen…