Microbial Immune Regulation

The microbiota encompasses a diverse population of microorganisms that colonize many body sites such as skin and intestine of multicellular hosts. The composition of the microbiota in humans is highly variable and is influenced by nutrition, immune competence, illness and use of medication (especially antibiotics). We are interested to enhance our understanding on how these microbial communities affect human infectious diseases and how they can be manipulated to treat diseases.


Selected Publications

Gálvez EJC, Iljazovic A, Gronow A, Flavell R, Strowig T. Shaping of Intestinal Microbiota in Nlrp6- and Rag2-Deficient Mice Depends on Community Structure. Cell Reports. 2017 21(13):3914-3926.

Roy U, Galvez EJC, Iljazovic A, Lesker T, Blazejewski A, Pils M, Heise U, Huber S, Flavell RA, Strowig T. Distinct microbial communities trigger colitis development upon damage to the intestinal barrier via innate or adaptive immune cells. Cell Reports. 2017 21(4):994-1008.

Thiemann S, Smit N, Roy U, Gálvez EJC, Helmecke J, Lesker T, Basic M, Bleich A, Goodman AL, Kalinke U, Flavell RA, Erhardt M, Strowig T. Enhancement of IFNγ production by distinct commensals ameliorates Salmonella induced disease. Cell Host & Microbe, 2017 21(6):682-694.e5.

Błażejewski AJ, Thiemann S, Schenk A, Pils M, Gálvez EJC, Heise U, de Zoete MR, Flavell RA, Strowig T. Microbiota normalization reveals that canonical Caspase-1 activation exacerbates chemically-induced intestinal inflammationCell Reports, 2017 19(11):2319-2330.   

Elinav E, Strowig T, Kau AL, Henao-Mejia J, Thaiss CA, Booth CJ, Peaper DR, Bertin J, Eisenbarth SC, Gordon JI, Flavell RA. NLRP6 inflammasome regulates colonic microbial ecology and risk for colitis. Cell. 2011 145(5):745-57.


  • Authors: Neumann,C.; Blume,J.; Roy,U.; Teh,P.P.; Vasanthakumar,A.; Beller,A.; Liao,Y.; Heinrich,F.; Arenzana,T.L.; Hackney,J.A.; Eidenschenk,C.; Gálvez,E.J.C.; Stehle,C.; Heinz,G.A.; Maschmeyer,P.; Sidwell,T.; Hu,Y.; Amsen,D.; Romagnani,C.; Chang,H.D.; Kruglov,A.; Mashreghi,M.F.; Shi,W.; Strowig,T.; Rutz,S.; Kallies,A.; Scheffold,A.; ( Year: 2019). Title: c-Maf-dependent T reg cell control of intestinal T H 17 cells and IgA establishes host-microbiota homeostasis.Journal: Nat.Immunol. DOI: 10.1038/s41590-019-0316-2PubMed
  • Authors: Mamareli,P.; Kruse,F.; Friedrich,C.; Smit,N.; Strowig,T.; Sparwasser,T.; Lochner,M.; ( Year: 2019). Title: Epithelium-specific MyD88 signaling, but not DCs or macrophages, control acute intestinal infection with Clostridium difficile.Journal: Eur.J.Immunol Volume: 49 Issue: 5, S-Page: 747- E-Page: 757 DOI: 10.1002/eji.201848022PubMed
  • Authors: Liao,L.; Schneider,K.M.; Galvez,E.J.C.; Frissen,M.; Marschall,H.U.; Su,H.; Hatting,M.; Wahlström,A.; Haybaeck,J.; Puchas,P.; Mohs,A.; Peng,J.; Bergheim,I.; Nier,A.; Hennings,J.; Reissing,J.; Zimmermann,H.W.; Longerich,T.; Strowig,T.; Liedtke,C.; Cubero,F.J.; Trautwein,C.; ( Year: 2019). Title: Intestinal dysbiosis augments liver disease progression via NLRP3 in a murine model of primary sclerosing cholangitis.Journal: GUT, S-Page: gutjnl-2018-316670 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2018-316670PubMed
  • Authors: Visscher,C.; Hankel,J.; Nies,A.; Keller,B.; Galvez,E.; Strowig,T.; Keller,C.; Breves,G.; ( Year: 2019). Title: Performance, Fermentation Characteristics and Composition of the Microbiome in the Digest of Piglets Kept on a Feed With Humic Acid-Rich Peat.Journal: Front Vet.Sci. Volume: 6 Issue: Febrary, S-Page: Article 29 DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00029HZI repositoryPubMed
  • Authors: Alpizar-Rodriguez,D.; Lesker,T.R.; Gronow,A.; Gilbert,B.; Raemy,E.; Lamacchia,C.; Gabay,C.; Finckh,A.; Strowig,T.; ( Year: 2019). Title: Prevotella copri in individuals at risk for rheumatoid arthritis.Journal: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases Volume: 78 Issue: 5, S-Page: 590- E-Page: 593 DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-214514HZI repositoryPubMed
  • Authors: Lagkouvardos,I.; Lesker,T.R.; Hitch,T.C.A.; Gálvez,E.J.C.; Smit,N.; Neuhaus,K.; Wang,J.; Baines,J.F.; Abt,B.; Stecher,B.; Overmann,J.; Strowig,T.; Clavel,T.; ( Year: 2019). Title: Sequence and cultivation study of Muribaculaceae reveals novel species, host preference, and functional potential of this yet undescribed family.Journal: Microbiome Volume: 7 Issue: 1, S-Page: Article number 28 DOI: 10.1186/s40168-019-0637-2HZI repositoryPubMed
  • Authors: Suwandhi,L.; Hausmann,S.; Braun,A.; Gruber,T.; Heinzmann,S.S.; Gálvez,E.J.C.; Buck,A.; Legutko,B.; Israel,A.; Feuchtinger,A.; Haythorne,E.; Staiger,H.; Heni,M.; Häring,H.-U.; Schmitt-Kopplin,P.; Walch,A.; Cáceres,C.G.; Tschöp,M.H.; Rutter,G.A.; Strowig,T.; Elsner,M.; Ussar,S.; ( Year: 2018). Title: Chronic D-serine supplementation impairs insulin secretion.Journal: Molecular Metabolism Volume: 15 Issue: September, S-Page: 104- E-Page: 115 DOI: 10.1016/j.molmet.2018.07.002HZI repositoryPubMed
  • Authors: Mathies,F.; Steffens,N.; Kleinschmidt,D.; Stuhlmann,F.; Huber,F.J.; Roy,U.; Meyer,T.; Luetgehetmann,M.; von,Petersdorff M.; Seiz,O.; Herkel,J.; Schramm,C.; Flavell,R.A.; Gagliani,N.; Krebs,C.; Panzer,U.; Abdullah,Z.; Strowig,T.; Bedke,T.; Huber,S.; ( Year: 2018). Title: Colitis Promotes a Pathological Condition of the Liver in the Absence of Foxp3(+) Regulatory T Cells.Journal: Journal of Immunology Volume: 201 Issue: 12, S-Page: 3558- E-Page: 3568 DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1800711PubMed
  • Authors: Heine,W.; Beckstette,M.; Heroven,A.K.; Thiemann,S.; Heise,U.; Nuss,A.M.; Pisano,F.; Strowig,T.; Dersch,P.; ( Year: 2018). Title: Loss of CNFY toxin-induced inflammation drives Yersinia pseudotuberculosis into persistency.Journal: PLoS.Pathog. Volume: 14 Issue: 2, S-Page: e1006858 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006858HZI repositoryPubMed
  • Authors: Strowig,T.; Thiemann,S.; Diefenbach,A.; ( Year: 2018). Title: Microbiome and gut immunity: Innate immune cells.Book Title: The Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease Publisher: Springer International Publishing, S-Page: 103- E-Page: 118 ISBN: 9783319905457 (ISBN)9783319905440 (ISBN)DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-90545-7_8WEBURLS
  • Authors: Pezoldt,J.; Pasztoi,M.; Zou,M.; Wiechers,C.; Beckstette,M.; Thierry,G.R.; Vafadarnejad,E.; Floess,S.; Arampatzi,P.; Buettner,M.; Schweer,J.; Fleissner,D.; Vital,M.; Pieper,D.H.; Basic,M.; Dersch,P.; Strowig,T.; Hornef,M.; Bleich,A.; Bode,U.; Pabst,O.; Bajenoff,M.; Saliba,A.E.; Huehn,J.; ( Year: 2018). Title: Neonatally imprinted stromal cell subsets induce tolerogenic dendritic cells in mesenteric lymph nodes.Journal: Nature Communications Volume: 9 Issue: 1, S-Page: 3903 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-06423-7HZI repositoryPubMed
  • Authors: Elinav,E.; Henao-Mejia,J.; Strowig,T.; Flavell,R.; ( Year: 2018). Title: NLRP6 and Dysbiosis: Avoiding the Luring Attraction of Over-Simplification.Journal: Immunity Volume: 48 Issue: 4, S-Page: 603- E-Page: 604 DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2018.04.002 HZI repository PubMed
  • Authors: Lucas,S.; Omata,Y.; Hofmann,J.; Bottcher,M.; Iljazovic,A.; Sarter,K.; Albrecht,O.; Schulz,O.; Krishnacoumar,B.; Kronke,G.; Herrmann,M.; Mougiakakos,D.; Strowig,T.; Schett,G.; Zaiss,M.M.; ( Year: 2018). Title: Short-chain fatty acids regulate systemic bone mass and protect from pathological bone loss.Journal: Nature Communications Volume: 9 Issue: 1, S-Page: 55 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-02490-4HZI repositoryPubMed
  • Authors: Schneider,K.M.; Wirtz,T.H.; Kroy,D.; Albers,S.; Neumann,U.P.; Strowig,T.; Sellge,G.; Trautwein,C.; ( Year: 2018). Title: Successful Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in a Patient with Severe Complicated Clostridium difficile Infection after Liver Transplantation.Journal: Case.Rep.Gastroenterol. Volume: 12 Issue: 1, S-Page: 76- E-Page: 84 DOI: 10.1159/000481937HZI repositoryPubMed
  • Authors: Just,S.; Mondot,S.; Ecker,J.; Wegner,K.; Rath,E.; Gau,L.; Streidl,T.; Hery-Arnaud,G.; Schmidt,S.; Lesker,T.R.; Bieth,V.; Dunkel,A.; Strowig,T.; Hofmann,T.; Haller,D.; Liebisch,G.; G q rard,P.; Rohn,S.; Lepage,P.; Clavel,T.; ( Year: 2018). Title: The gut microbiota drives the impact of bile acids and fat source in diet on mouse metabolism.Journal: Microbiome Volume: 6 Issue: 1, S-Page: Article number 134 DOI: 10.1186/s40168-018-0510-8HZI repositoryPubMed
  • Authors: Kindt,A.; Liebisch,G.; Clavel,T.; Haller,D.; Hörmannsperger,G.; Yoon,H.; Kolmeder,D.; Sigruener,A.; Krautbauer,S.; Seeliger,C.; Ganzha,A.; Schweizer,S.; Morisset,R.; Strowig,T.; Daniel,H.; Helm,D.; Küster,B.; Krumsiek,J.; Ecker,J.; ( Year: 2018). Title: The gut microbiota promotes hepatic fatty acid desaturation and elongation in mice.Journal: Nature Communications Volume: 9 Issue: 1, S-Page: 3760 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-05767-4FulltextPubMed
  • Authors: Yu,H.; Borsotti,C.; Schickel,J.N.; Zhu,S.; Strowig,T.; Eynon,E.E.; Frleta,D.; Gurer,C.; Murphy,A.J.; Yancopoulos,G.D.; Meffre,E.; Manz,M.G.; Flavell,R.A.; ( Year: 2017). Title: A novel humanized mouse model with significant improvement of class-switched, antigen-specific antibody production.Journal: Blood Volume: 129 Issue: 8, S-Page: 959- E-Page: 969 DOI: 10.1182/blood-2016-04-709584Fulltext HZI repository PubMed
  • Authors: Rueckert,C.; Rand,U.; Roy,U.; Kasmapour,B.; Strowig,T.; Guzmán,C.A.; ( Year: 2017). Title: Cyclic dinucleotides modulate induced type I IFN responses in innate immune cells by degradation of STING.Journal: FASEB J. Volume: 31 Issue: 7, S-Page: 3107- E-Page: 3115 DOI: 10.1096/fj.201601093RPubMed
  • Authors: Roy,U.; Gàlvez,E.J.C.; Iljazovic,A.; Lesker,T.R.; Blazejewski,A.J.; Pils,M.C.; Heise,U.; Huber,S.; Flavell,R.A.; Strowig,T.; ( Year: 2017). Title: Distinct Microbial Communities Trigger Colitis Development upon Intestinal Barrier Damage via Innate or Adaptive Immune Cells.Journal: Cell Reports Volume: 21 Issue: 4, S-Page: 994- E-Page: 1008 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.09.097HZI repositoryPubMed
  • Authors: Thiemann,S.; Smit,N.; Roy,U.; Lesker,T.R.; Galvez,E.J.C.; Helmecke,J.; Basic,M.; Bleich,A.; Goodman,A.L.; Kalinke,U.; Flavell,R.A.; Erhardt,M.; Strowig,T.; ( Year: 2017). Title: Enhancement of IFNgamma Production by Distinct Commensals Ameliorates Salmonella-Induced Disease.Journal: Cell Host.Microbe Volume: 21 Issue: 6, S-Page: 682- E-Page: 694 DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2017.05.005PubMed
  • Authors: Horstmann,J.A.; Zschieschang,E.; Truschel,T.; de,Diego J.; Lunelli,M.; Rohde,M.; May,T.; Strowig,T.; Stradal,T.; Kolbe,M.; Erhardt,M.; ( Year: 2017). Title: Flagellin phase-dependent swimming on epithelial cell surfaces contributes to productive Salmonella gut colonization.Journal: Cell Microbiol. Volume: 19 Issue: 8 DOI: 10.1111/cmi.12739 HZI repository PubMed
  • Authors: Herndler-Brandstetter,D.; Shan,L.; Yao,Y.; Stecher,C.; Plajer,V.; Lietzenmayer,M.; Strowig,T.; de Zoete,M.R.; Palm,N.W.; Chen,J.; Blish,C.A.; Frleta,D.; Gurer,C.; Macdonald,L.E.; Murphy,A.J.; Yancopoulos,G.D.; Montgomery,R.R.; Flavell,R.A.; ( Year: 2017). Title: Humanized mouse model supports development, function, and tissue residency of human natural killer cells.Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Volume: 114 Issue: 45, S-Page: E9626- E-Page: E9634 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705301114HZI repositoryPubMed
  • Authors: Blazejewski,A.J.; Thiemann,S.; Schenk,A.; Pils,M.C.; Galvez,E.J.C.; Roy,U.; Heise,U.; de Zoete,M.R.; Flavell,R.A.; Strowig,T.; ( Year: 2017). Title: Microbiota Normalization Reveals that Canonical Caspase-1 Activation Exacerbates Chemically Induced Intestinal Inflammation.Journal: Cell Reports Volume: 19 Issue: 11, S-Page: 2319- E-Page: 2330 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.05.058HZI repositoryPubMed
  • Authors: Friedrich,C.; Mamareli,P.; Thiemann,S.; Kruse,F.; Wang,Z.; Holzmann,B.; Strowig,T.; Sparwasser,T.; Lochner,M.; ( Year: 2017). Title: MyD88 signaling in dendritic cells and the intestinal epithelium controls immunity against intestinal infection with C. rodentium.Journal: PLoS Pathogens Volume: 13 Issue: 5, S-Page: e1006357 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006357HZI repositoryPubMed
  • Authors: Galvez,E.J.C.; Iljazovic,A.; Gronow,A.; Flavell,R.; Strowig,T.; ( Year: 2017). Title: Shaping of Intestinal Microbiota in Nlrp6- and Rag2-Deficient Mice Depends on Community Structure.Journal: Cell Reports Volume: 21 Issue: 13, S-Page: 3914- E-Page: 3926 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.12.027HZI repositoryPubMed
  • Authors: Pelczar,P.; Witkowski,M.; Perez,L.G.; Kempski,J.; Hammel,A.G.; Brockmann,L.; Kleinschmidt,D.; Wende,S.; Haueis,C.; Bedke,T.; Witkowski,M.; Krasemann,S.; Steurer,S.; Booth,C.J.; Busch,P.; König,A.; Rauch,U.; Benten,D.; Izbicki,J.R.; Rösch,T.; Lohse,A.W.; Strowig,T.; Gagliani,N.; Flavell,R.A.; Huber,S.; ( Year: 2016). Title: A pathogenic role for T cell-derived IL-22BP in inflammatory bowel disease.Journal: Science Volume: 354 Issue: 6310, S-Page: 358- E-Page: 362 DOI: 10.1126/science.aah5903PubMed
  • Authors: Rausch,P.; Basic,M.; Batra,A.; Bischoff,S.C.; Blaut,M.; Clavel,T.; Glasner,J.; Gopalakrishnan,S.; Grassl,G.A.; Gunther,C.; Haller,D.; Hirose,M.; Ibrahim,S.; Loh,G.; Mattner,J.; Nagel,S.; Pabst,O.; Schmidt,F.; Siegmund,B.; Strowig,T.; Volynets,V.; Wirtz,S.; Zeissig,S.; Zeissig,Y.; Bleich,A.; Baines,J.F.; ( Year: 2016). Title: Analysis of factors contributing to variation in the C57BL/6J fecal microbiota across German animal facilities.Journal: Int.J Med.Microbiol. Volume: 306 Issue: 5, S-Page: 343- E-Page: 355 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmm.2016.03.004HZI repositoryPubMed
  • Authors: Thiemann,S.; Smit,N.; Strowig,T.; ( Year: 2016). Title: Antibiotics and the Intestinal Microbiome : Individual Responses, Resilience of the Ecosystem, and the Susceptibility to Infections.Book Title: How to Overcome the Antibiotic Crisis Publisher: Springer, S-Page: 123- E-Page: 146 DOI: 10.1007/82_2016_504PubMed
  • Authors: Hu,B.; Jin,C.; Li,H.B.; Tong,J.; Ouyang,X.; Cetinbas,N.M.; Zhu,S.; Strowig,T.; Lam,F.C.; Zhao,C.; Henao-Mejia,J.; Yilmaz,O.; Fitzgerald,K.A.; Eisenbarth,S.C.; Elinav,E.; Flavell,R.A.; ( Year: 2016). Title: The DNA-sensing AIM2 inflammasome controls radiation-induced cell death and tissue injury.Journal: Science Volume: 354 Issue: 6313, S-Page: 765- E-Page: 768 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf7532HZI repositoryPubMed
  • Authors: Pessi,I.S.; Osorio-Forero,C.; G b lvez,E.J.; Simões,F.L.; S imões,J.C.; Junca,H.; M a cedo,A.J.; ( Year: 2015). Title: Distinct composition signatures of archaeal and bacterial phylotypes in the Wanda Glacier forefield, Antarctic Peninsula.Journal: Fems Microbiology Ecology Volume: 91 Issue: 1, S-Page: Article number fiu005 WEBURLS
  • Authors: Finethy,R.; Jorgensen,I.; Haldar,A.K.; de Zoete,M.R.; Strowig,T.; Flavell,R.A.; Yamamoto,M.; Nagarajan,U.M.; Miao,E.A.; Coers,J.; ( Year: 2015). Title: Guanylate Binding Proteins enable rapid activation of canonical and noncanonical inflammasomes in Chlamydia-infected macrophages.Journal: Infection and Immunity Volume: 83, S-Page: 4740- E-Page: 4749 PubMed
  • Authors: Vazquez,C.L.; Lerner,T.R.; Kasmapour,B.; Pei,G.; Gronow,Achim; Bianco,M.V.; Blanco,F.C.; Bleck,C.K.; Geffers,Robert; Bigi,F.; Abraham,Wolf-Rainer; Gutierrez,Maximiliano G.; ( Year: 2014). Title: Experimental selection of long-term intracellular mycobacteria.Journal: Cell Microbiology Volume: 16, S-Page: 1425- E-Page: 1440 DOI: 10.1111/cmi.12303HZI repositoryPubMed
  • Authors: Wynosky-Dolfi,M.A.; Snyder,A.G.; Philip,N.H.; Doonan,P.J.; Poffenberger,M.C.; Avizonis,D.; Zwack,E.E.; Riblett,A.M.; Hu,B.; Strowig,Till; Flavell,R.A.; Jones,R.G.; Freedman,B.D.; Brodsky,I.E.; ( Year: 2014). Title: Oxidative metabolism enables Salmonella evasion of the NLRP3 inflammasome.Journal: Journal of Experimental Medicine Volume: 211 Issue: 4, S-Page: 653- E-Page: 668 PubMed
  • Authors: Bronietzki,Marc; Kasmapour,Bahram; Gutierrez,Maximiliano; ( Year: 2014). Title: Study of phagolysosome biogenesis in live macrophages.Journal: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE Issue: 85 DOI: 10.3791/51201.WEBURLS


Audio Podcast

  • 46_Mit Mäusekötteln gegen Morbus Crohn – neue Wege gegen chronisch-entzündliche DarmerkrankungenEntzündliche Darmerkrankungen bedeuten großes Leid für die Patienten, sind kaum behandelbar und bisher wissen weder Ärzte noch Forscher, wie es dazu kommt, dass allein in Deutschland etwa 300.000 Menschen an Krankheiten wie Morbus Crohn und Colitis Ulcerosa leiden. Wissenschaftler am HZI suchen in den Bakteriengemeinschaften, die im Darm leben nach Antworten. Begleiten Sie Till Strowig ins Labor und hören Sie zu, wie er ein Probenröhrchen voll Mäuseköttel für die Forschung homogenisiert…
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