Epidemiology conducts research on health and disease at the population level – infection epidemiology is concerned with contagious diseases. Their tools and methods are systematic queries, clinical examinations and laboratory diagnostic documentation for both healthy and afflicted individuals, as well as statistical analysis of the compiled data. Causes and risk factors for infections can thus be identified. Infectious diseases epidemiology contributes to the development of preventive measures, early detection and therapy for diseases. Moreover, it examines the efficacy of such measures. Thus epidemiology ties in with scientific findings in basic research as well as medicine, and examines these processes at the population level.



Prof Dr Gérard Krause

Head of department Epidemiology



1: Balabanova Y, Klar S, Deleré Y, Wilking H, Faber MS, Lassen SG, Gilsdorf A, Dupke S, Nitschke M, Sayk F, Grunow R, Krause G. Serological Evidence of Asymptomatic Infections during Escherichia coli O104:H4 Outbreak in Germany in 2011. PLoS One. 2013;8(9).

2: Böhmer MM, Walter D, Ehrhardt J, Reiter S, Krause G, Wichmann O. [Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza Vaccination: Coverage and Attitude among Private Physicians in Germany.] Gesundheitswesen. 2013.

3: Buchholz U, Müller MA, Nitsche A, Sanewski A, Wevering N, Bauer-Balci T, Bonin F, Drosten C, Schweiger B, Wolff T, Muth D, Meyer B, Buda S, Krause G, Schaade L, Haas W. Contact investigation of a case of human novel coronavirus infection treated in a German hospital, October-November 2012. Euro Surveill. 2013;18(8).

4: Heideking M, Lander F, Hufnagel M, Pfeifer Y, Wicker E, Krause G, Berner R. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of neonatal invasive isolates of Escherichia coli from a 2-year nationwide surveillance study in Germany, 2009-2010. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;32(9).

5: Krause G, Frank C, Gilsdorf A, Mielke M, Schaade L, Stark K, Burger R. [The 2011 HUS epidemic in Germany. Challenges for disease control: what should be improved?]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2013;56(1):56-66: 10.1007/s00103-012-1585-1. German. Erratum in: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2013;56(8).

6: Mohr O, Hermes J, Schink SB, Askar M, Menucci D, Swaan C, Goetsch U, Monk P, Eckmanns T, Poggensee G, Krause G. Development of a risk assessment tool for contact tracing people after contact with infectious patients while travelling by bus or other public ground transport: a Delphi consensus approach. BMJ Open. 2013;24;3(10).

7: Ultsch B, Köster I, Reinhold T, Siedler A, Krause G, Icks A, Schubert I, Wichmann O.  (2013). Epidemiology and cost of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Germany. Eur J Health Econ. 2013 Dec;14(6):1015-26.

8: Ultsch B, Weidemann F, Reinhold T, Siedler A, Krause G, Wichmann O. Health economic evaluation of vaccination strategies for the prevention of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Germany. BMC Health Serv Res. 2013;13(1) 


9: Askar M, Mohr O, Eckmanns T, Krause G, Poggensee G. Quantitative assessment of passenger flows in Europe and its implications for tracing contacts of infectious passengers. Euro Surveill. 2012;17(24).

10: Böhmer MM, Walter D, Falkenhorst G, Müters S, Krause G, Wichmann O. Barriers to pandemic influenza vaccination and uptake of seasonal influenza vaccine in the post-pandemic season in Germany. BMC Public Health. 2012 Oct 31;12:938. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-938. PubMed PMID: 23113995; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3527143.

11: Dehnert M, Fingerle V, Klier C, Talaska T, Schlaud M, Krause G, Wilking H, Poggensee G. Seropositivity of Lyme borreliosis and associated risk factors: a population-based study in Children and Adolescents in Germany (KiGGS). PLoS One.  2012;7(8):e41321. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041321. Epub 2012 Aug 15. PubMed PMID: 22905101; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3419690.

12: Klein S, Schöneberg I, Krause G. [The historical development of immunization in Germany. From compulsory smallpox vaccination to a National Action Plan on Immunization]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2012;55(11-12).

13: Laude G, Kist M, Krause G. [Networks of National Reference Centers and associated Consiliary Laboratories in Germany]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2012;55(2).

14: Mohr O, Askar M, Schink S, Eckmanns T, Krause G, Poggensee G. Evidence for airborne infectious disease transmission in public ground transport--a literature review. Euro Surveill. 2012;17(35).

15: STEC Workshop Reporting Group. Experiences from the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak in Germany and research needs in the field, Berlin, 28-29 November 2011. Euro Surveill. 2012;17(7).

16: Suess T, Remschmidt C, Schink SB, Schweiger B, Heider A, Milde J, Nitsche A, Schroeder K, Doellinger J, Braun C, Haas W, Krause G, Buchholz U. Comparison of shedding characteristics of seasonal influenza virus (sub)types and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09; Germany, 2007-2011. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e51653. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051653. Epub 2012 Dec 11. PubMed PMID: 23240050; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3519848.

17: Suess T, Remschmidt C, Schink SB, Schweiger B, Nitsche A, Schroeder K, Doellinger J, Milde J, Haas W, Koehler I, Krause G, Buchholz U. The role of facemasks and hand hygiene in the prevention of influenza transmission in households: results from a cluster randomised trial; Berlin, Germany, 2009-2011.  BMC Infect Dis. 2012 Jan 26;12:26. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-26. PubMed PMID: 22280120; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3285078.

18: Ultsch B, Köster I, Reinhold T, Siedler A, Krause G, Icks A, Schubert I, Wichmann O. Epidemiology and cost of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in  Germany. Eur J Health Econ. 2012 Dec 28. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23271349.

19: Velasco E, Noll I, Espelage W, Ziegelmann A, Krause G, Eckmanns T. A survey of outpatient antibiotic prescribing for cystitis. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2012 Dec;109(50):878-84. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2012.0878. Epub 2012 Dec 14. PubMed PMID: 23293677; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3536042.

20: Velasco E, Ziegelmann A, Eckmanns T, Krause G. Eliciting views on antibiotic prescribing and resistance among hospital and outpatient care physicians in Berlin, Germany: results of a qualitative study. BMJ Open. 2012 Feb 3;2(1):e000398. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000398. Print 2012. PubMed PMID: 22307097; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3274716.

21: Walter D, Bohmer M, Reiter S, Krause G, Wichmann O. Risk perception and information-seeking behaviour during the 2009/10 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic in Germany. Euro Surveill. 2012;17(13).

22: Werber D, Krause G, Frank C, Fruth A, Flieger A, Mielke M, Schaade L, Stark K. Outbreaks of virulent diarrheagenic Escherichia coli--are we in control? BMC Med. 2012 Feb 2;10:11. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-10-11. Review. PubMed PMID: 22300479; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3350439.

23: Wicker S, Gottschalk R, Wolff U, Krause G, Rabenau HF Influenzaimpfquoten in hessischen Krankenhäusern. Bundesgesundheitsblatt. 2012;55:932-36.

24: Wilking H, Götsch U, Meier H, Thiele D, Askar M, Dehnert M, Frank C, Fruth A, Krause G, Prager R, Stark K, Böddinghaus B, Bellinger O, Gottschalk R. Identifying risk factors for shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by payment information. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012 Jan;18(1):169-70. doi: 10.3201/eid1801.111044. PubMed PMID: 22261344; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3310115. 


25: Böhmer MM, Walter D, Krause G, Müters S, Gösswald A, Wichmann O. Determinants of tetanus and seasonal influenza vaccine uptake in adults living in Germany. Hum Vaccin. 2011 Dec;7(12):1317-25. doi: 10.4161/hv.7.12.18130. Epub 2011 Dec 1. PubMed PMID: 22108034.

26: Buchholz U, Bernard H, Werber D, Böhmer MM, Remschmidt C, Wilking H, Deleré Y, an der Heiden M, Adlhoch C, Dreesman J, Ehlers J, Ethelberg S, Faber M, Frank  C, Fricke G, Greiner M, Höhle M, Ivarsson S, Jark U, Kirchner M, Koch J, Krause G, Luber P, Rosner B, Stark K, Kühne M. German outbreak of Escherichia coli O104:H4 associated with sprouts. N Engl J Med. 2011 Nov 10;365(19):1763-70. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1106482. Epub 2011 Oct

27: PubMed PMID: 22029753. 26: Altmann M, Spode A, Altmann D, Wadl M, Benzler J, Eckmanns T, Krause G, An der Heiden M. Timeliness of surveillance during outbreak of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection, Germany, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Oct;17(10):1906-9. doi: 10.3201/eid1710.111027. PubMed PMID: 22000368; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3310688.

28: Balabanova Y, Gilsdorf A, Buda S, Burger R, Eckmanns T, Gärtner B, Gross U, Haas W, Hamouda O, Hübner J, Jänisch T, Kist M, Kramer MH, Ledig T, Mielke M, Pulz M, Stark K, Suttorp N, Ulbrich U, Wichmann O, Krause G. Communicable diseases prioritized for surveillance and epidemiological research: results of a  standardized prioritization procedure in Germany, 2011. PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e25691. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025691. Epub 2011 Oct 4. PubMed PMID 21991334; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3186774.

29: Van Kerkhove MD, Vandemaele KA, Shinde V, Jaramillo-Gutierrez G, Koukounari A, Donnelly CA, Carlino LO, Owen R, Paterson B, Pelletier L, Vachon J, GonzalezC, Hongjie Y, Zijian F, Chuang SK, Au A, Buda S, Krause G, Haas W, Bonmarin I, Taniguichi K, Nakajima K, Shobayashi T, Takayama Y, Sunagawa T, Heraud JM, Orelle A, Palacios E, van der Sande MA, Wielders CC, Hunt D, Cutter J, Lee VJ, Thomas J, Santa-Olalla P, Sierra-Moros MJ, Hanshaoworakul W, Ungchusak K, Pebody R, Jain S, Mounts AW; WHO Working Group for Risk Factors for Severe H1N1pdm Infection. Risk  factors for severe outcomes following 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection: a global pooled analysis. PLoS Med. 2011 Jul;8(7):e1001053. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001053. Epub 2011 Jul 5. PubMed PMID: 21750667; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3130021.

30: Dudareva S, Schweiger B, Thamm M, Höhle M, Stark K, Krause G, Buda S, Haas W. Prevalence of antibodies to 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in German adult population in pre- and post-pandemic period. PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e21340. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021340. Epub 2011 Jun 20. PubMed PMID: 21701598; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3119048.

31: Frank C, Werber D, Cramer JP, Askar M, Faber M, an der Heiden M, Bernard H, Fruth A, Prager R, Spode A, Wadl M, Zoufaly A, Jordan S, Kemper MJ, Follin P, Müller L, King LA, Rosner B, Buchholz U, Stark K, Krause G; HUS Investigation Team. Epidemic profile of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak in Germany. N Engl J Med. 2011 Nov 10;365(19):1771-80. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1106483. Epub 2011 Jun 22. PubMed PMID: 21696328.    


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