Emmanuelle Charpentier Honored With the 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Congratulations from the HZI, where Charpentier was head of the department "Regulation in Infection Biology" from 2013 to 2015
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has awarded this year’s Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Emmanuelle Charpentier, former Head of the Department “Regulation in Infection Biology” at the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Braunschweig, and Professor at the Hannover Medical School, Hannover, for her groundbreaking work on the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology. She shares the prize with Jennifer A. Doudna.
"We are very pleased that Emmanuelle Charpentier's outstanding scientific achievements are now also being honoured by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences," says Dirk Heinz, Scientific Director of the HZI. "The CRISPR-Cas9 system has a huge impact on genetic engineering and biomedicine. We are very proud of Emmanuelle and warmly congratulate her and Jennifer Doudna on this tremendous success."
According to the announcement of the Nobel Committee in Chemistry at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer A. Doudna receive the prize for the development of methods for genetic modification. “I am overwhelmed and deeply honored to receive a prize of such high distinction and look forward to video-celebrating this exceptional award with my team members, colleagues, family and friends,” commented Emmanuelle Charpentier. “My special thoughts go to my former lab members, especially Elitza Deltcheva and Krzysztof Chylinski, who have contributed significantly to the deciphering of the CRISPR-Cas9 mechanism in bacteria and to my colleagues in the field of CRISPR biology. This award clearly underlines the importance and relevance of fundamental research in the field of microbiology.”
Considered a revolution in the fields of medicine, biotechnology and agriculture, the CRISPR-Cas9 technology is a powerful and versatile tool to specifically and efficiently modify any genetic sequence in the cells of living organisms. CRISPR-Cas was originally described as an adaptive immune system in bacteria and archaea to fight off viral attacks.
In 2011, Emmanuelle Charpentier - at that time working at the Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS) at Umeå University - and her laboratory at the Max Perutz Labs of the Vienna University published a seminal article in Nature describing the identification of tracrRNA as an essential component – together with the CRISPR RNA and Cas9 – for the activation of the CRISPR-Cas9 viral defense mechanism in the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes and other bacterial species. One year later, in 2012, Charpentier and her laboratory team were able to demonstrate that CRISPR-Cas9 is a dual-tracrRNA-CRISPR RNA enzyme that cleaves DNA sequence-specifically. The system was then developed into a precise gene-editing tool that can correct defective DNA, much like a text editing software can edit or correct typos in a document. The details of the DNA targeting mechanism by the CRISPR-Cas9 system and the guidelines how to use it as a versatile genetic tool to modify the genome of cells and organisms were published in the journal Science in 2012 with the study done in collaboration with Jennifer Doudna’s laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley.
These fundamental discoveries have enabled subsequent applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology across many diverse fields of science, including human and veterinary medicine, agriculture and biotechnology. Its broad applicability, versatility and ease of use are the reasons that it has been so rapidly adopted by the scientific community. The results of the CRISPR research already had an enormous effect on the life sciences, e.g. a better understanding of mechanisms of life or the development of disease models and screenings. While the technology is already waiting in the wings to be marketed in agriculture, the mission in the field of medicine over the next years will be to translate it into safe and effective therapies for severe human diseases for which there are currently no treatment options.
“I am truly amazed at the speed at which CRISPR research and applications in so many diverse areas of the life sciences have developed in recent years,” explains Emmanuelle Charpentier. “I look forward to seeing new developments in this genome editing and engineering technology, particularly as a gene-based medicine to treat serious human diseases.”
About Emmanuelle Charpentier
Emmanuelle Charpentier is considered a world-leading expert in regulatory mechanisms underlying processes of infection and immunity in bacterial pathogens. She is Scientific and Managing Director of the Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens in Berlin, an institute that she founded together with the Max Planck Society. She is also Honorary Professor of the Humboldt University in Berlin.
Prior to her current appointments and until 2017, Emmanuelle Charpentier was Associate Professor at the Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS, within the Nordic EMBL Partnership for Molecular Medicine) and visiting Professor at the Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR), Umeå University, where she habilitated in Medical Microbiology in 2013. She was also Alexander von Humboldt Professor and Head of Department at the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research in Braunschweig and Professor at the Hannover Medical School in Germany.
Emmanuelle Charpentier studied biochemistry, genetics and microbiology at the University Pierre and Marie Curie (Now Sorbonne University) in Paris, where she received her PhD in microbiology for her research performed at the Pasteur Institute. Following her studies in France, she spent more than five years working in the U.S., where she held research associate positions in New York at the Rockefeller University, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine and New York University Langone Medical Center, and in Memphis, Tennessee at the St Jude Children’s Research Hospital.
In 2002, she moved back to Europe to lead her first independent research group as a Guest, Assistant and Associate Professor at the Max F. Perutz Laboratories (now Max Perutz Labs), University of Vienna in Austria, where she habilitated in Microbiology in 2006.
On October 16, 2020, Emmanuelle Charpentier will receive the Carl Friedrich Gauss-Medaille from the Braunschweig Scientific Society (Braunschweigische Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft, BWG) in Braunschweig.
Read more about Emmanuelle Charpentier and her research:
Read more about the Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens in Berlin:
Press photos of Emmanuelle Charpentier. Credit: Hallbauer&Fioretti
Umeå University press photos of Emmanuelle Charpentier