• cancer

    definition

    Cancer is…

    Cancer develops when a body cell divides uncontrollably and displaces healthy tissue. It is one of the most frequent causes of death. Different factors like cigarette smoking, certain chemicals, and exposure to UV light are associated with the development of cancer and are thus considered carcinogenic. Certain viruses, like papillomavirus, can also be triggers. Cell culture exploits the fact that cancer cells don’t die. See HeLa cells.

  • catheter

    definition

    A catheter is…

    Thin tube that is introduced into the body for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It allows for probing or rinsing of hollow internal organs like the urinary bladder, the stomach, the intestine, the ear, or the heart and blood vessels. In addition, it allows for the introduction of drugs or surgical equipment into the body.

  • cell culture

    definition

    Cell culture is…

    Growing living cells in a nutrient medium. Cell cultures can be used to study processes taking place inside living cells or to make biological products like monoclonal antibodies. Scientists use immortalized cell lines that divide infinitely. In most cases, these are tumour cells. The best known examples are HeLa cells.

  • chemotherapy

    definition

    Chemotherapy is…

    Form of therapy used in the treatment of cancer. Cytotoxic drugs that damage cells attack all those cells that divide rapidly, a property of cancer cells and certain normal cells like bone marrow cells and hair follicles. Since chemotherapeutic drugs are unable to distinguish between healthy and cancer cells, immunosuppression and hair loss are common side effects of chemotherapy.

  • cholera

    definition

    Cholera is…

    Serious diarrheal disease triggered by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The bacterium spreads through contaminated water and food. As is true for many diarrheal diseases, cholera related fluid loss is the most serious threat to the body.

  • clone

    definition

    Clones are…

    Cells or organisms that have originated from repeated division of a common precursor cell or organism.

  • complement system

    definition

    Complement system refers to…

    System consisting of about 20 plasma proteins called complement factors involved in the body’s non-specific defense against pathogens. It is part of the innate immune system. Activated complement factors cause the pathogen to burst or attract immune cells that destroy the pathogen.

  • contact infection

    definition

    A contact infection is…

    Direct transmission of pathogens through contact with an infected person or indirect transmission through contact of contaminated objects (doorknobs, banisters, etc.), formerly also known as a smear infection.

  • COPD

    definition

    COPD stands for...

    Acronym for “chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.”
    Collective term for chronic lung diseases that impair airflow in the lungs. Characteristic symptoms include coughing, increased sputum, and dyspnoea following exertion. According to a World Health Organization prognosis, COPD could become the third most common cause of death worldwide by the year 2030.

  • cytokines

    definition

    Cytokines are…

    Proteins that influence the behaviour of other cells, in particular their growth and differentiation.

  • cytoskeleton

    definition

    The cytoskeleton is…

    Dynamic system of protein fibers inside eukaryotic cells, which gives the cell its shape and allows directional movement. It plays an important role in transport processes within the cell as well as during cell division.

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