• single-celled organisms


    Single-celled organisms are…

    Organisms made up of just one single cell that, unlike bacteria, contain a true nucleus and are thus classified as eukaryotes. Examples include paramecium and the pathogen that causes malaria.

  • source of infection


    The source of infection is…

    The origin of an infection.

  • smallpox


    Smallpox is…

    Serious viral infectious disease. Typical symptoms include skin pustules. Smallpox are a prime example of a successful immunization campaign: First attempts at creating a vaccine were made by Edward Jenner in the 1700's. He immunized patients using extracts from bovine smallpox which are caused by a closely related virus. Patients were immune to human smallpox following this vaccine. Mass immunizations led to smallpox being officially declared eradicated by 1980. Today, only two high-security laboratories store frozen viral cultures.

  • Salmonella


    Salmonella are…

    Bacterial species that can cause typhoid and salmonellosis. Salmonellosis is a very common diarrheal disease that is transmitted by ingesting contaminated animal products. It represents a major health threat for very young and older patients or for persons with an immune deficiency. Symptoms of typhoid include fever and abdominal pain and can be lethal if untreated.

  • SARS

    abbreviation of

    SARS stands for…

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome; a highly virulent form of pneumonia caused by the corona virus. A 2003 SARS epidemic spread rapidly from Asia to Europe and America through air traffic. 8,000 cases were reported worldwide. Because of the short incubation period, patients could be quickly identified and isolated, which helped contain the epidemic.

  • smear infection


    A smear infection is…

    Infection through contact with contaminated surfaces.

  • screening


    Screening means…

    Systematic test protocol for examining a large number of samples or people for certain properties.

  • sepsis


    Sepsis is…

    Infection of the blood circulatory system, which is often lethal. Sepsis develops if a pathogen or a toxin produced by it gets into the bloodstream and spreads throughout the body. This prompts activation of the entire immune system, leading to unchecked inflammation, a massive drop in blood pressure, and multiple organ failure.

  • sequencing


    Sequencing is…

    Determining the base sequence in DNA or RNA to decode the hereditary information it contains. The term is also used to describe the amino acid sequence in a protein.

  • serological test


    A serological test is…

    Antibody-antigen-test used to determine blood group and diagnose disease by testing for the presence of antibodies against a particular infectious agent.

  • Shigella


    Shigella are…

    Bacterial genus which may cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). The disease is transmitted through contaminated water or food and is characterized by fever and severe diarrhea.

  • signal transduction


    Signal transduction means…

    Transmission of an usually external signal inside the cell or organism. Receptors, enzymes, and messenger substances all figure prominently in this process. Signals can be combined, amplified, or attenuated. By studying these information processes, researchers are gleaning insights into the inner workings of a cell.

  • spot synthesis


    Spot synthesis is…

    Method developed at the GBF for parallel synthesis of peptides, short chains of amino acids, on a cellulose membrane.

  • stem cell


    A stem cell is…

    Relatively undifferentiated cell which has the capacity to divide indefinitely and in the process produce daughter cells, which themselves become stem cells or differentiate into specialized cell types.

  • Staphylococcus aureus


    Staphylococcus aureus is…

    Bacterium that lives on the skin and mucous membranes in many people. In case of a compromised immune system, the opportunistic human pathogen causes wound infections and muscular disorders. It can also lead to an often deadly intoxication of the circulatory system. MRSA's, multiresistant strains of the bacterium, are much-feared.

  • staphylococci


    Staphylococci are…

    Spherical, gram-positive bacteria that colonize skin and mucous membranes and which can cause disease.

  • sterile


    Sterile means…

    Devoid of viable microorganisms.

  • sterilization


    Sterilization refers to…

    Killing off all microorganisms and inactivating all viruses and nucleic acids found on or inside of an object. See autoclave.



    STIKO stands for…

    German Standing Committee on Vaccination; independent panel of experts coordinated by the Robert Koch Institute that publishes recommendations on how to protect against infectious diseases.

  • Streptococcus mutans


    Streptococcus mutans is…

    Bacterial species of the genus streptococcus. Most important infectious agent behind dental caries, found in most people’s saliva.

  • streptococci


    Streptococci are…

    A group of bacteria that causes many diseases including tonsillitis, dermatitits, dental caries, and pneumonia. Rheumatic heart disease is one dangerous potential outcome of a streptococcus infection. The bacteria are able to hide from the immune system and antibiotics inside the host tissue, making an infection challenging to treat.

  • structural biology


    Structural biology is…

    Science concerned with the study of the spatial structures of molecules. The structure allows for conclusions to be drawn as to a molecule’s function.

  • susceptibility


    Susceptibility means…

    Predisposition of a host for a given infectious disease. Also, susceptibility of a pathogen to a particular drug.

  • systems immunology


    Systems immunology means…

    Research field concerned with the analysis of experimental data using methods from informatics and computer simulation. Scientists study mechanisms employed by the immune system to respond to an infectious disease. They develop mathematical models and make predictions about future experiments.

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