• innate immunity


    Innate immunity means…

    Defense system against pathogens that is present from birth. It responds non-specifically but is always available and targets foreign particles within the body. Important components include mechanical barriers like the skin, macrophages, killer cells, and interferons.

  • inflammation


    Inflammation means…

    Local accumulation of fluid and white blood cells in response to infection or injury. Inflammation has four characteristic traits: heat, pain, redness, and swelling. It may become chronic and destroy tissues.

  • influenza


    Influenza is…

    Popularly known as “the flu,” influenza is a highly contagious disease of the airways caused by the influenza virus. Immunization is possible by influenza vaccination, which bestows protection for up to one year. Each year, influenza claims roughly 500,000 lives. The most recent large-scale pandemics include the Spanish Flu (1918-1920), the Asian Flu (1957-1958), and the Hong Kong Flu (1968-1970). See also avian flu. The term “flu” is sometimes used colloquially to describe the common cold.

  • immune defense


    Immune defense refers to…

    Comprises all mechanisms of the immune system that serve the purpose of defending the body against pathogens.

  • immunodeficiency


    Immunodeficiency means…

    An innate or acquired functional disorder of the immune system. Innate immune defects may affect the development of immune cells like B or T cells. Acquired immune defects can be triggered by infectious diseases like AIDS but may be desirable for therapeutic purposes as in following a transplantion. See immunosuppression.

  • immunsuppression


    Immunosuppression means…

    Often artificially elicited suppression of the immune response, for example, to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ.

  • immune system


    The immune system is…

    Tisues, cells and molecules that are involved in the body’s defense against pathogens.

  • in silico


    in silico bedeutet...

    Term to describe a computer-simulated process. See in vitro, in vivo.

  • in vitro


    In vitro refers to…

    Describes a process taking place in a test tube, that is, in a controlled environment outside the organism. See in silico, in vivo.

  • in vivo


    In vivo refers to…

    Describes a process taking place inside an intact cell or organism. See in silico, in vitro.

  • infection


    An infection is…

    A pathogen’s invasion of the body and subsequent proliferation. Pathogens may be bacteria, viruses, fungi, single-celled organisms, parasites, or prions. In most cases, the immune system’s initial reaction to an infection is the mounting of an innate immune response that is frequently accompanied by an inflammatory response, followed by a response by the adaptive immune system.

  • influenza viruses


    Influenza viruses are…

    The flu pathogen; Influenza viruses A and B affect humans.

  • incubation period


    The incubation period is…

    The time between infection with a pathogen and the onset of initial symptoms of the disease.

  • Interferon


    interferons are…

    Proteins belonging to the family of cytokines that regulate the immune system. Interferons are secreted by immune cells. They are effective against viruses and interfere with tumour cell proliferation. Interferons are used in therapy.

  • internalin


    Internalin is…

    Protein found on the surface of the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. This bacterial protein binds to the cellular transmembrane protein E-cadherin and uses it to enter the host cell.

  • invasion

    Invasion means…

    Entry of an infectious agent into the host cell. Viruses are not able to proliferate on their own and are thus always dependent on their host and its protein machinery. Some bacteria like Salmonella and Listeria also enter the host cell.

  • incidence

    Incidence describes…

    Frequency of new cases of a disease. Incidence is calculated by dividing the number of new cases of a disease within a defined time period by the total number of individuals within the population under observation.

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