PhD Programme Epidemiology

The PhD programme “Epidemiology” is a three-year doctoral programme in the area of epidemiological research and is coordinated by the Department of Epidemiology of the HZI.

The PhD programme is a collaborative effort of the Department of Epidemiology, the HZI Grad School and the HBRS (MHH). After successful completion, candidates will be awarded a PhD or, in some instances, a Dr. rer. nat.

Current admissions for the PhD Programme are only possible if funding is assured by the applicant (e.g. by a scholarship or a third party).


List of student publications in the context of the PhD Programme "Epidemiology"

Al-Mekhlafi A, Sühs K-W, Schuchardt S, Kuhn M, Müller-Vahl K, Trebst C, Skripuletz T, Klawonn F, Stangel M, Pessler F (2021) Elevated Free Phosphatidylcholine Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid Distinguish Bacterial from Viral CNS Infections. Cells 10: 1115. DOI 10.3390/cells10051115

Gornyk D, Scharlach M, Buhr-Riehm B, Klett-Tammen CJ, Eberhard S, Stahmeyer JT, Großhennig A, Smith A, Meinicke S, Bautsch W, et al. (2021) Effectiveness of trainings of General Practitioners on antibiotic stewardship: A pragmatic quasi-experimental study in a controlled before-after design in South-East-Lower Saxony, Germany (WASA). Front Pharmacol provisionally accepted. DOI 10.3389/fphar.2021.533248

Nguyen MTH, Krause G, Keller-Stanislawski B, Glöckner S, Mentzer D, Ott JJ (2021) Postmarketing Safety Monitoring After Influenza Vaccination Using a Mobile Health App: Prospective Longitudinal Feasibility Study. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 9: e26289. DOI 10.2196/26289


Al-Mekhlafi A, Becker T, Klawonn F (2020) Sample size and performance estimation for biomarker combinations based on pilot studies with small sample sizes. Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods: 1-15. DOI 10.1080/03610926.2020.1843053

Bockey AJ, Janda A, Braun C, Müller A-M, Stete K, Kern WV, Rieg SR, Lange B (2020) Patient satisfaction & use of health care: a cross-sectional study of asylum seekers in the Freiburg initial reception centre. BMC Health Services Research 20: 709. DOI 10.1186/s12913-020-05579-7

Hassenstein MJ, Aarabi G, Ahnert P, Becher H, Franzke CW, Fricke J, Krause G, Glöckner S, Gottschick C, Karch A, et al. (2020) [Self-reported infections in the German National Cohort (GNC) in the context of the current research landscape]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz 63: 404-414. DOI 10.1007/s00103-020-03114-x

Hassenstein MJ, Aarabi G, Ahnert P, Becher H, Franzke C-W, Fricke J, Krause G, Glöckner S, Gottschick C, Karch A, et al. (2020) Selbst berichtete Infektionen in der NAKO Gesundheitsstudie – Einordnung in die gegenwärtige Forschungslandschaft. Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz 63: 404-414. DOI 10.1007/s00103-020-03114-x

Apenteng OO, Osei PP, Oduro B, Kwabla MP, Ismail NA (2020) The impact of implementing HIV prevention policies therapy and control strategy among HIV and AIDS incidence cases in Malaysia. Infectious Disease Modelling 5: 755-765. DOI 10.1016/j.idm.2020.09.009

Nguyen MTH, Ott JJ, Caputo M, Keller-Stanislawski B, Klett-Tammen CJ, Linnig S, Mentzer D, Krause G (2020) User preferences for a mobile application to report adverse events following vaccination. Pharmazie 75: 27-31. DOI 10.1691/ph.2020.9734

Silenou, B, Tom-Aba D, Adeoye O, Arinze C, Oyiri F, Suleman A, Yinka-Ogunleye A, Dörrbecker J, Ihekweazu C, Krause G (2020) Use of Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System for Human Monkeypox Outbreak, Nigeria, 2017-2019. Emerging infectious diseases 26: 345-349. DOI 10.3201/eid2602.191139

Tom-Aba D, Silenou BC, Doerrbecker J, Fourie C, Leitner C, Wahnschaffe M, Strysewske M, Arinze CC, Krause G (2020) The Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System (SORMAS): Digital Health Global Goods Maturity Assessment. JMIR public health and surveillance 6: e15860-e15860. DOI 10.2196/15860


Caputo M, Horn J, Karch A, Akmatov MK, Becher H, Braun B, . . . Mikolajczyk R. (2019). Herpes zoster incidence in Germany - an indirect validation study for self-reported disease data from pretest studies of the population-based German National Cohort. BMC Infect Dis, 19(1), 99. doi:10.1186/s12879-019-3691-2

Caputo M, Stumpe V, Rubsamen N, Mikolajczyk RT, Karch A. (2019). Implementation of preventive measures against tick-borne infections in a non-endemic area for tick-borne encephalitis-Results from a population-based survey in Lower Saxony, Germany. Ticks Tick Borne Dis, 10(3), 614-620. doi:10.1016/j.ttbdis.2019.02.005

Caputo M, Zoch-Lesniak B, Karch A, Vital M, Meyer F, Klawonn F, . . . Mikolajczyk RT. (2019). Bacterial community structure and effects of picornavirus infection on the anterior nares microbiome in early childhood. BMC Microbiol, 19(1), 1. doi:10.1186/s12866-018-1372-8

Grylka-Baeschlin S, Clarke M, Begley C, Daly D, Healy P, Nicoletti J, . . . Gross MM. (2019). Labour characteristics of women achieving successful vaginal birth after caesarean section in three European countries. Midwifery, 74, 36-43. doi:10.1016/j.midw.2019.03.013

Raupach-Rosin H, Rübsamen N, Schütte G, Raschpichler G, Chaw PS, Mikolajczyk R. (2019). Knowledge on Antibiotic Use, Self-Reported Adherence to Antibiotic Intake, and Knowledge on Multi-Drug Resistant Pathogens – Results of a Population-Based Survey in Lower Saxony, Germany. 10(776). doi:10.3389/fmicb.2019.00776

Zoch-Lesniak B, Ware RS, Grimwood K, Lambert SB. (2019). The Respiratory Specimen Collection Trial (ReSpeCT): A Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare Quality and Timeliness of Respiratory Sample Collection in the Home by Parents and Healthcare Workers From Children Aged <2 Years. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. doi:10.1093/jpids/piy136


Akmatov MK, Rubsamen N, Deyneko IV, Karch A, Mikolajczyk RT. (2018). Poor knowledge of vaccination recommendations and negative attitudes towards vaccinations are independently associated with poor vaccination uptake among adults - Findings of a population-based panel study in Lower Saxony, Germany. Vaccine, 36(18), 2417-2426. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.03.050

Chaw PS, Schlinkmann KM, Raupach-Rosin H, Karch A, Pletz MW, Huebner J, . . . Mikolajczyk R. (2018). Antibiotic use on paediatric inpatients in a teaching hospital in the Gambia, a retrospective study. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control, 7, 82. doi:10.1186/s13756-018-0380-7

Horn J, Damm O, Greiner W, Hengel H, Kretzschmar ME, Siedler A, . . . Mikolajczyk RT. (2018). Influence of demographic changes on the impact of vaccination against varicella and herpes zoster in Germany – a mathematical modelling study. BMC Medicine, 16(1), 3. doi:10.1186/s12916-017-0983-5

Horn J, Hoodgarzadeh M, Klett-Tammen CJ, Mikolajczyk RT, Krause G, Ott JJ. (2018). Epidemiologic estimates of hepatitis E virus infection in European countries. J Infect, 77(6), 544-552. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2018.09.012

Limaye D, Limaye V, Fortwengel G, Krause G. (2018). Self-medication practices in urban and rural areas of western India: a cross sectional study. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 5(7), 2672. doi:10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20182596

Obenauer J, Rübsamen N, Castell S, Hoodgarzadeh M, Klett-Tammen CJ, Mikolajczyk RT, Karch A. (2018). Perceptions of Zika virus risk in Germany in 2016. Eur J Public Health, 28(1), 139-144. doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckx092

Obenauer J, Rübsamen N, Garsevanidze E, Karch A, Mikolajczyk RT. (2018). Changes in risk perceptions during the 2014 Ebola virus disease epidemic: results of two consecutive surveys among the general population in Lower Saxony, Germany. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 628. doi:10.1186/s12889-018-5543-1

Schlinkmann KM, Bakuli A, Karch A, Meyer F, Dreesman J, Monazahian M, Mikolajczyk R. (2018). Transmission of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in German households with children attending child care. Epidemiology and Infection, 146(5), 627-632. doi:10.1017/S0950268818000316

Tom-Aba D, Nguku PM, Arinze CC, Krause G. (2018). Assessing the Concepts and Designs of 58 Mobile Apps for the Management of the 2014-2015 West Africa Ebola Outbreak: Systematic Review. JMIR Public Health Surveill, 4(4), e68. doi:10.2196/publichealth.9015

Tom-Aba D, Toikkanen SE, Glockner S, Adeoye O, Mall S, Fahnrich C, . . . Krause G. (2018). User Evaluation Indicates High Quality of the Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System (SORMAS) After Field Deployment in Nigeria in 2015 and 2018. Stud Health Technol Inform, 253, 233-237.


Bakuli A, Klawonn F, Karch A, Mikolajczyk R. (2017). Effects of pathogen dependency in a multi-pathogen infectious disease system including population level heterogeneity - a simulation study. Theor Biol Med Model, 14(1), 26. doi:10.1186/s12976-017-0072-7

Chaw PS, Schlinkmann KM, Raupach-Rosin H, Karch A, Pletz MW, Huebner J, Mikolajczyk R. (2017). Knowledge, attitude and practice of Gambian health practitioners towards antibiotic prescribing and microbiological testing: a cross-sectional survey. Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 111(3), 117-124. doi:10.1093/trstmh/trx027 %J Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Cuny C, Arnold P, Hermes J, Eckmanns T, Mehraj J, Schoenfelder S, . . . Witte W. (2017). Occurrence of cfr-mediated multiresistance in staphylococci from veal calves and pigs, from humans at the corresponding farms, and from veterinarians and their family members. Vet Microbiol, 200, 88-94. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.04.002

Damm O, Horn J, Mikolajczyk RT, Kretzschmar MEE, Kaufmann AM, Deleré Y, . . . Greiner W. (2017). Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination in Germany. Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation, 15(1), 18. doi:10.1186/s12962-017-0080-9

Karo B, Krause G, Castell S, Kollan C, Hamouda O, Haas W, ClinSurv HIVSG. (2017). Immunological recovery in tuberculosis/HIV co-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy: implication for tuberculosis preventive therapy. BMC Infect Dis, 17(1), 517. doi:10.1186/s12879-017-2627-y

Limaye D, Limaye V, Krause G, Fortwengel G. (2017). A systematic review of the literature on survey questionnaires to assess self-medication practices. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 2017(4(8)), 2620-2631.

Limaye D, Limaye V, Krause G, Fortwengel G. (2017). A Systematic Review of the Literature to Assess Self-medication Practices. Ann Med Health Sci Res, 7, 1-15.

Meyer F, Karch A, Schlinkmann KM, Dreesman J, Horn J, Rubsamen N, . . . Mikolajczyk R. (2017). Sociodemographic determinants of spatial disparities in early childhood caries: An ecological analysis in Braunschweig, Germany. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 45(5), 442-448. doi:10.1111/cdoe.12308

Nguyen VK, Hernandez-Vargas EA. (2017). Windows of opportunity for Ebola virus infection treatment and vaccination. Sci Rep, 7(1), 8975. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-08884-0

Rubsamen N, Akmatov MK, Castell S, Karch A, Mikolajczyk RT. (2017). Comparison of response patterns in different survey designs: a longitudinal panel with mixed-mode and online-only design. Emerg Themes Epidemiol, 14(1), 4. doi:10.1186/s12982-017-0058-2

Rubsamen N, Akmatov MK, Castell S, Karch A, Mikolajczyk RT. (2017). Factors associated with attrition in a longitudinal online study: results from the HaBIDS panel. BMC Med Res Methodol, 17(1), 132. doi:10.1186/s12874-017-0408-3

Schlinkmann KM, Bakuli A, Mikolajczyk R. (2017). Incidence and comparison of retrospective and prospective data on respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in German households. BMC Infectious Diseases, 17(1), 336. doi:10.1186/s12879-017-2434-5

Schlinkmann KM, Glöckner S, Adeoye O, Ameh C, Ihekweazu C, Nguku P, . . . Krause G. (2017). Poster: Surveillance and Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System (SORMAS) - an open source mHealth tool. Paper presented at the 3rd African Conference on Emerging Infectious Disease and Biosecurity, Accra, Ghana.

Schweitzer A, Akmatov MK, Krause G. (2017). Hepatitis B vaccination timing: results from demographic health surveys in 47 countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 95(3), 199-209G. doi:10.2471/blt.16.178822

Tom-Aba D, Nguku P, Arinze C, Krause G. (2017). Results of a systematic review of concepts and designs of 58 different mobile applications for the management of the West African Ebola outbreak 2014/15. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, submitted.

Zoch B, Gunther A, Karch A, Mikolajczyk R. (2017). Effect of Disease Definition on Perceived Burden of Acute Respiratory Infections in Children: A Prospective Cohort Study Based on Symptom Diaries. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 36(10), 956-961. doi:10.1097/INF.0000000000001604


Grylka-Baeschlin S, Petersen A, Karch A, Gross MM. (2016). Labour duration and timing of interventions in women planning vaginal birth after caesarean section. Midwifery, 34, 221-229. doi:

Horn J, Karch A, Damm O, Kretzschmar ME, Siedler A, Ultsch B, . . . Mikolajczyk RT. (2016). Current and future effects of varicella and herpes zoster vaccination in Germany – Insights from a mathematical model in a country with universal varicella vaccination. Hum Vaccin Immunother, 12(7), 1766-1776. doi:10.1080/21645515.2015.1135279

Karo B, Krause G, Hollo V, van der Werf MJ, Castell S, Hamouda O, Haas W. (2016). Impact of HIV infection on treatment outcome of tuberculosis in Europe. AIDS, 30(7), 1089-1098. doi:10.1097/QAD.0000000000001016

Mehraj J, Witte W, Akmatov MK, Layer F, Werner G, Krause G. (2016). Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage Patterns in the Community. In M Stadler,P Dersch (Eds.), How to Overcome the Antibiotic Crisis: Facts, Challenges, Technologies and Future Perspectives (pp. 55-87). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Nguyen VK, Klawonn F, Mikolajczyk R, Hernandez-Vargas EA. (2016). Analysis of Practical Identifiability of a Viral Infection Model. PLoS One, 11(12), e0167568. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0167568

Obenauer J, Rübsamen N, Castell S, Hoodgarzadeh M, Klett-Tammen CJ, Mikolajczyk R. (2016). Perceptions of Zika virus risk in Lower Saxony in 2016. Paper presented at the DZIF Annual Meeting. German Center for Infections Reearch (DZIF), Flora, Cologne.

Raupach-Rosin H, Rubsamen N, Szkopek S, Schmalz O, Karch A, Mikolajczyk R, Castell S. (2016). Care for MRSA carriers in the outpatient sector: a survey among MRSA carriers and physicians in two regions in Germany. BMC Infect Dis, 16(1), 184. doi:10.1186/s12879-016-1503-5

Schlinkmann KM, Raupach-Rosin H, Hübner J, Mikolajczyk R. (2016). Infection prevention at preschool age - What is reasonable? [Infektionsprävention im Kindergartenalter -Was ist sinnvoll?]. Tägliche Praxis, 58(1), 7-19.


Damm O, Horn J, Mikolajczyk R, Greiner W, Siedler A, Weidemann F, . . . Ultsch B. (2015). PIN70 - Health Economic Evaluation of Different Vaccination Strategies Against Varicella and Herpes Zoster in Germany. Value in Health, 18(7), A588. doi:

Damm O, Ultsch B, Horn J, Mikolajczyk RT, Greiner W, Wichmann O. (2015). Systematic review of models assessing the economic value of routine varicella and herpes zoster vaccination in high-income countries. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 533. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1861-8

Karo B, Hauer B, Hollo V, van der Werf MJ, Fiebig L, Haas W. (2015). Tuberculosis treatment outcome in the European Union and European Economic Area: an analysis of surveillance data from 2002-2011. Euro Surveill, 20(49). doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2015.20.49.30087

Nguyen VK, Binder SC, Boianelli A, Meyer-Hermann M, Hernandez-Vargas EA. (2015). Ebola virus infection modeling and identifiability problems. Front Microbiol, 6, 257. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00257

Rubsamen N, Castell S, Horn J, Karch A, Ott JJ, Raupach-Rosin H, . . . Mikolajczyk RT. (2015). Ebola risk perception in Germany, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis, 21(6), 1012-1018. doi:10.3201/eid2106.150013

Schweitzer A, Akmatov MK, Kindler F, Kemmling Y, Kreienbrock L, Krause G, Pessler F. (2015). The impact of distance and duration of travel on participation rates and participants' satisfaction: results from a pilot study at one study centre in Pretest 2 of the German National Cohort. BMJ Open, 5(8), e007461. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007461

Schweitzer A, Krause G, Pessler F, Akmatov MK. (2015). Improved coverage and timing of childhood vaccinations in two post-Soviet countries, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 798. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2091-9

Tom-Aba D, Olaleye A, Olayinka AT, Nguku P, Waziri N, Adewuyi P, . . . Shuaib F. (2015). Innovative technological approach to ebola virus disease outbreak response in Nigeria using the open data kit and form hub technology. PLoS One, 10(6). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0131000

Zoch B, Karch A, Dreesman J, Monazahian M, Baillot A, Mikolajczyk RT. (2015). Feasibility of a birth cohort study dedicated to assessing acute infections using symptom diaries and parental collection of biomaterials. BMC Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 436. doi:10.1186/s12879-015-1189-0


Akmatov MK, Mehraj J, Gatzemeier A, Strömpl J, Witte W, Krause G, Pessler F. (2014). Serial home-based self-collection of anterior nasal swabs to detect Staphylococcus aureus carriage in a randomized population-based study in Germany. Int J Infect Dis, 25, 4-10. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2014.01.021

Damm O, Horn J, Schmidt T, Neubauer S, Zeidler J, Mikolajczyk R, . . . Ultsch B. (2014). Epidemiology and Costs of Varicella and Herpes Zoster in Germany. Value Health, 17(7), A670-671. doi:10.1016/j.jval.2014.08.2481

Hense S, Hillebrand K, Horn J, Mikolajczyk R, Schulze-Rath R, Garbe E. (2014). HPV vaccine uptake after introduction of the vaccine in Germany: an analysis of administrative data. Hum Vaccin Immunother, 10(6), 1729-1733. doi:10.4161/hv.28450

Mehraj J, Akmatov MK, Strompl J, Gatzemeier A, Layer F, Werner G, . . . Krause G. (2014). Methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in a random sample of non-hospitalized adult population in northern Germany. PLoS One, 9(9), e107937. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0107937


Horn J, Damm O, Kretzschmar ME, Delere Y, Wichmann O, Kaufmann AM, . . . Mikolajczyk RT. (2013). Estimating the long-term effects of HPV vaccination in Germany. Vaccine, 31(19), 2372-2380. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.03.006

Mikolajczyk RT, Kraut AA, Horn J, Schulze-Rath R, Garbe E. (2013). Changes in incidence of anogenital warts diagnoses after the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination in Germany-an ecologic study. Sex Transm Dis, 40(1), 28-31. doi:10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3182756efd


Prof. Dr. Gérard Krause

Dr. Jördis J. Ott

Department of Epidemiology
Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research
Inhoffenstraße 7
38124 Braunschweig

PhD Office:
Sylvia Richter

Phone: + 49 (0) 531 6181 - 3136

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