Welche Rolle spielen die Gene bei Infektionskrankheiten? Welche Rolle spielt die Umwelt? Lässt sich dieses komplexe Zusammenspiel aus Genen und Umwelteinflüssen am Computer simulieren? Fragen, die erst aufgekommen sind, weil die Wissenschaft inzwischen einen recht guten Überblick über Gene in Mensch, Tier und anderen Organismen hat. Antworten auf diese Fragen suchen unsere Forscher in der Infektionsgenetik. Sie untersuchen, welchen Einfluss die Gene des Wirts und verschiedene Varianten dieser Gene auf die Abwehr gegenüber einer Infektion mit dem Influenza A Virus haben.


Ausgewählte Publikationen

Schughart K, Utset MF, Awgulewitsch A, Ruddle FH (1988) Structure and expression of Hox-2.2, a murine homeobox-containing gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85: 5582-5586

Malicki J, Schughart K, McGinnis W (1990) Mouse Hox-2.2 specifies thoracic segmental identity in Drosophila embryos and larvae. Cell 63: 961-967

Favor J, Sandulache R, Neuhauser-Klaus A, Pretsch W, Chatterjee B, Senft E, Wurst W, Blanquet V, Grimes P, Sporle R, Schughart K (1996) The mouse Pax2(1Neu) mutation is identical to a human PAX2 mutation in a family with renal-coloboma syndrome and results in developmental defects of the brain, ear, eye, and kidney. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93: 13870-13875

Hrabe de Angelis MH, Flaswinkel H, Fuchs H, Rathkolb B, Soewarto D, Marschall S, Heffner S, Pargent W, Wuensch K, Jung M, Reis A, Richter T, Alessandrini F, Jakob T, Fuchs E, Kolb H, Kremmer E, Schaeble K, Rollinski B, Roscher A, Peters C, Meitinger T, Strom T, Steckler T, Holsboer F, Klopstock T, Gekeler F, Schindewolf C, Jung T, Avraham K, Behrendt H, Ring J, Zimmer A, Schughart K, Pfeffer K, Wolf E, Balling R (2000) Genome-wide, large-scale production of mutant mice by ENU mutagenesis. Nat Genet 25: 444-447

Streicher J, Donat MA, Strauss B, Sporle R, Schughart K, Muller GB (2000) Computer-based three-dimensional visualization of developmental gene expression. Nat Genet 25: 147-152

Publikationen (Stand 06/2017)


  • Amer Ashrafi; Pierre Garcia, Heike Kollmus, Klaus Schughart, Antonio del Sol, Manuel Buttini. Absence of regulator of G-protein signaling 4 does not protect against dopamine neuron dysfunction and injury in the mouse 6-hydroxydopamine lesion model of Parkinson's disease. Accepted for publication in Neurobiology of Aging, 12.6.2017
  • Benjamin M Tang, Maryam Shojaei, Grant P Parnell,  Stephen Huang,  Marek Nalos, Sally Teoh, Kate O’Connor,  Stephen Schibeci, Amy L Phu, Anand Kumar, John Ho, Adrienne FA Meyers,  Yoav Keynan, Terry Ball, Amarnath Pisipati, Aseem Kumar, Elizabeth Moore, Damon Eisen, Kevin Lai, Mark Gillett, Robert Geffers, Hao Luo, Fahad Gul, Jens Schreiber, Sandra Riedel, David Booth, Anthony McLean and Klaus Schughart (2016) IFI27 is a gene-expression biomarker that identifies an influenza-specific immune response in symptomatic patients. European Respiratory Journal. Accepted for publication 12.3.17
  • Matthias Preusse, Klaus Schughart, Frank Pessler. (2017). Host genetic background strongly affects pulmonary miRNA expression before and during evolution of influenza A virus infection. Frontiers in Immunology, section Microbial Immunology, in press 210317.
  • Wei Yang, Darsaniya Punyadarsaniya, Ruth Lambertz, David Lee, Chi-Hui Liang, Dirk Höper, Sarah Leist, Alejandra Hernandez-Caceres, Juergen Stech, Martin Beer, Chung-Yi Wu, Chi-Huey Wong, Klaus Schughart, Fandan Meng, and Georg Herrler. Mutations during the adaptation of H9N2 avian influenza virus to the respiratory epithelium of pigs enhance the sialic acid binding activity and the virulence in mice  J. Virol. Accepted for publication 260117.
  • K. SchughartR. W. Williams (Editors). (2016). Systems Genetics. Methods and Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology. Volume 1488 2017. Springer.  ISBN: 978-1-4939-6425-3 (Print) 978-1-4939-6427-7 (Online).
  • Gatti, D., French, J.E., and Schughart, K. (2017). QTL Mapping and Identification of Candidate Genes in DO Mice: A Use Case Model Derived from a Benzene Toxicity Experiment. Methods Mol Biol 1488, 265-281.
  • Hatesuer, B., Hoang, H.T., Riese, P., Trittel, S., Gerhauser, I., Elbahesh, H., Geffers, R., Wilk, E., and Schughart, K. (2017). Deletion of Irf3 and Irf7 Genes in Mice Results in Altered Interferon Pathway Activation and Granulocyte-Dominated Inflammatory Responses to Influenza A Infection. J Innate Immun 9, 145-161.


  • Kanrai, P., Mostafa, A., Madhugiri, R., Lechner, M., Wilk, E., Schughart, K., Ylosmaki, L., Saksela, K., Ziebuhr, J., and Pleschka, S. (2016). Identification of specific residues in avian influenza A virus NS1 that enhance viral replication and pathogenicity in mammalian systems. J Gen Virol. 2016 Sep;97(9):2135-48. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.000542.
  • Elbahesh, H., and Schughart, K. (2016). Genetically diverse CC-founder mouse strains replicate the human influenza gene expression signature. Sci Rep 6, 26437.
  • Kuhn, N., Bergmann, S., Kosterke, N., Lambertz, R.L., Keppner, A., van den Brand, J.M., Pohlmann, S., Weiss, S., Hummler, E., Hatesuer, B., Schughart, K. (2016). The Proteolytic Activation of (H3N2) Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin Is Facilitated by Different Type II Transmembrane Serine Proteases. J Virol 90, 4298-4307.
  • Leist, S.R., Kollmus, H., Hatesuer, B., Lambertz, R.L., and Schughart, K. (2016a). Lst1 deficiency has a minor impact on course and outcome of the host response to influenza A H1N1 infections in mice. Virol J 13, 17.
  • Leist, S.R., Pilzner, C., van den Brand, J.M., Dengler, L., Geffers, R., Kuiken, T., Balling, R., Kollmus, H., and Schughart, K. (2016b). Influenza H3N2 infection of the collaborative cross founder strains reveals highly divergent host responses and identifies a unique phenotype in CAST/EiJ mice. BMC Genomics 17, 143.
  • Low, H.Z., Ahrenstorf, G., Pommerenke, C., Habermann, N., Schughart, K., Ordonez, D., Stripecke, R., Wilk, E., and Witte, T. (2016). TLR8 regulation of LILRA3 in monocytes is abrogated in human immunodeficiency virus infection and correlates to CD4 counts and virus loads. Retrovirology 13, 15.
  • Marion, T., Elbahesh, H., Thomas, P.G., DeVincenzo, J.P., Webby, R., and Schughart, K. (2016). Respiratory Mucosal Proteome Quantification in Human Influenza Infections. PLoS One 11, e0153674.


  • Milanez-Almeida, P., Ulas, T., Pasztoi, M., Glage, S., Schughart, K., Lutz, M.B., Schultze, J.L., and Huehn, J. (2015). CD11b(+)Ly6C(++)Ly6G(-) Cells with Suppressive Activity Towards T Cells Accumulate in Lungs of Influenza a Virus-Infected Mice. (2015) European journal of microbiology & immunology 5, 246-255.
  • Alessandro  Boianelli, Van Kinh Nguyen, Thomas Ebensen, Kai Schulze, Esther Wilk, Niharika Sharma, Sabine  Stegemann-Koniszewski, Dunja  Bruder, Franklin R. Toapanta, Carlos A. Guzmán, Michael Meyer-Hermann, Esteban A.Hernandez-Vargas. Modeling Influenza Virus - A roadmap for influenza research (2015) Viruses
  • Wilk, E., Pandey, A.K., Leist, S.R., Hatesuer, B., Preusse, M., Pommerenke, C., Wang, J., and Schughart, K. (2015). RNAseq expression analysis of resistant and susceptible mice after influenza A virus infection identifies novel genes associated with virus replication and important for host resistance to infection. BMC Genomics 16, 655.
  • Shin, D.L., Hatesuer, B., Bergmann, S., Nedelko, T., and Schughart, K. (2015). Protection from Severe Influenza Virus Infections in Mice Carrying the Mx1 Influenza Virus Resistance Gene Strongly Depends on Genetic Background. J Virol 89, 9998-10009.
  • Janecek, E., Wilk, E., Schughart, K., Geffers, R., and Strube, C. (2015). Microarray gene expression analysis reveals major differences between Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati neurotoxocarosis and involvement of T. canis in lipid biosynthetic processes. International journal for parasitology 45, 495-503.
  • Preusse, M., Schughart, K., Wilk, E., Klawonn, F., and Pessler, F. (2015). Hematological parameters in the early phase of influenza A virus infection in differentially susceptible inbred mouse strains. BMC Res Notes 8, 225.
  • Meehan T.F., Chen C.-K., Koscielny G., Relac M., Wilkinson P., Flicek P., Parkinson H., Castro A., Fessele S., Steinkamp R., Hagn M., Raess M., De Angelis M.H., Bottomley J., Ramirez-Solis R., Smedley D., Ball S., Blake A., Fray M., Kenyon J., Mallon A.-M , INFRAFRONTIER - Providing mutant mouse resources as research tools for the international scientific community, Nucleic Acids Research 43 (2015): 0 - 0


  •  Dai-Lun Shin, Ashutosh K. Pandey, Jesse Dylan Ziebarth, Robert W. Williams, Robert Geffers, Bastian Hatesuer, Klaus Schughart and Esther Wilk (2014) Analysis of the CD94 encoding gene Klrd1 revealed isogenic DBA/2 mice, G3, 2014 Dec 17. pii: g3.114.015164. doi: 10.1534/g3
  • INFRAFRONTIER Consortium, and Schughart), i.K. (2015). INFRAFRONTIER-providing mutant mouse resources as research tools for the international scientific community. Nucleic Acids Res 43, D1171-1175.
  • Tantawy, M.A., Hatesuer, B., Wilk, E., Dengler, L., Kasnitz, N., Weiss, S., and Schughart, K. (2014). The Interferon-Induced Gene Ifi27l2a is Active in Lung Macrophages and Lymphocytes After Influenza A Infection but Deletion of Ifi27l2a in Mice Does Not Increase Susceptibility to Infection. PLoS ONE 9, e106392.
  • Dengler, L., Kuhn, N., Shin, D.L., Hatesuer, B., Schughart, K., and Wilk, E. (2014). Cellular changes in blood indicate severe respiratory disease during influenza infections in mice. PLoS ONE 9, e103149.
  • Kollmus, H., Wilk, E., and Schughart, K. (2014). Systems biology and systems genetics-novel innovative approaches to study host-pathogen interactions during influenza infection. Curr Opin Virol 6C, 47-54.
  • Hall, R.A., Liebe, R., Hochrath, K., Kazakov, A., Alberts, R., Laufs, U., Bohm, M., Fischer, H.P., Williams, R.W., Schughart, K., et al. (2014). Systems Genetics of Liver Fibrosis: Identification of Fibrogenic and Expression Quantitative Trait Loci in the BXD Murine Reference Population. PLoS ONE 9, e89279.
  • Dimitrakopoulou, K., Dimitrakopoulos, G.N., Wilk, E., Tsimpouris, C., Sgarbas, K.N., Schughart, K., and Bezerianos, A. (2014a). Influenza A Immunomics and Public Health Omics: The Dynamic Pathway Interplay in Host Response to H1N1 Infection. OMICS 18, 167-183.
  • Hernandez-Vargas, E.A., Wilk, E., Canini, L., Toapanta, F.R., Binder, S., Uvarovskii, A., Ross, T.M., Guzman, C.A., Perelson, A.S., and Meyer-Hermann, M. (2014). The effects of aging on influenza virus infection dynamics. J Virol. 2014; 88(8):4123-31.
  • Gamache B., Leist S.R., Bard A.D., Logan D.W., Carpanini S.M. , 27th International Mammalian Genome Conference meeting report, Mammalian Genome (IPF:2,8), 25 (2014): 195 – 201


  • Hatesuer, B., Bertram, S., Mehnert, N., Bahgat, M.M., Nelson, P.S., Pohlman, S., and Schughart, K. (2013). Tmprss2 Is Essential for Influenza H1N1 Virus Pathogenesis in Mice. PLoS Pathog 9, e1003774.
  • Blazejewska P., Koscinski L., Viegas N., Anhlan D., Ludwig S., Schughart K. .( 2013)  Corrigendum to "Pathogenicity of different PR8 influenza: A virus variants in mice is determined by both viral and host factors.” Virology 412 36-45, article in press.
  • Preusse, M., Tantawy, M.A., Klawonn, F., Schughart, K., and Pessler, F. (2013). Infection- and procedure-dependent effects on pulmonary gene expression in the early phase of influenza A virus infection in mice. BMC Microbiol 13, 293.
  • Dimitrakopoulou, K., Vrahatis, A.G., Wilk, E., Tsakalidis, A.K., and Bezerianos, A. (2013). OLYMPUS: an automated hybrid clustering method in time series gene expression. Case study: host response after Influenza A (H1N1) infection. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2013; 111(3):650-61
  • S. Leist, H. Kollmus, C. Pilzner, K. Schughart (2013) Eine innovative Mauspopulation als genetisches Modell für den Menschen Biospektrum, DOI: 10.1007/s12268-013-0346-5
  • A. Siegfried, S. Berchtold, B. Manncke, E. Deuschle, J. Reber, T. Ott, J. Pott, S. Stockinger, M. Weber, U. Kalinke, M. J. Hofer, B. Hatesuer, K. Schughart, V. Gailus-Durner, H. Fuchs, M. Hrabě de Angelis, F. Weber, M. W. Hornef, I. B. Autenrieth, and E. Bohn (2013). IFIT2 Is an Effector Protein of Type I IFN-Mediated Amplification of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced TNF-α Secretion and LPS-Induced Endotoxin Shock. J Immunol. 2013, 1;191: 3913-21.
  • Bergmann, S., Beard, P.M., Pasche, B., Lienenklaus, S., Weiss, S., Gahan, C.G., Schughart, K., and Lengeling, A. (2013a). Influence of internalin a murinisation on host resistance to orally acquired listeriosis in mice. BMC Microbiol 13, 90.
  • §  Bergmann, S., Rohde, M., Schughart, K., and Lengeling, A. (2013b). The bioluminescent Listeria monocytogenes strain Xen32 is defective in flagella expression and highly attenuated in orally infected BALB/cJ mice. Gut Pathog 5, 19.
  • Dogan, A., Lasch, P., Neuschl, C., Millrose, M.K., Alberts, R., Schughart, K., Naumann, D., and Brockmann, G.A. (2013). ATR-FTIR spectroscopy reveals genomic loci regulating the tissue response in high fat diet fed BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains. BMC Genomics 14, 386.
  • Delprato, A., Aransay, A.M., Kollmus, H., Schughart, K., and Falcon-Perez, J.M. (2013). Meeting report of the European mouse complex genetics network SYSGENET. Mamm Genome 24, 190-197.
  • Schughart, K., Libert, C., and Kas, M.J. (2013). Controlling complexity: the clinical relevance of mouse complex genetics. Eur J Hum Genet, 10.1038/ejhg.2013.1079.
  • Shepelkova, G., Pommerenke, C., Alberts, R., Geffers, R., Evstifeev, V., Apt, A., Schughart, K., and Wilk, E. (2012). Analysis of the lung transcriptome in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice reveals major differences in immune response pathways between TB-susceptible and resistant hosts. Tuberculosis (Edinb).
  • K. Dimitrakopouloua, A. G. Vrahatisb, E. Wilk, A. K. Tsakalidisb and  A. Bezerianosa (2013) OLYMPUS: An automated hybrid clustering methodin time series gene expression. Case study: Hostresponse after Influenza A (H1N1) infection. COMM, doi: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2013.05.025.


  • Schughart, K., Libert, C., and Kas, M.J. (2012). Human disease: Strength to strength for mouse models. Nature 492, 41.
  • Akmatov, M.K., Gatzemeier, A., Schughart, K., and Pessler, F. (2012). Equivalence of self- and staff-collected nasal swabs for the detection of viral respiratory pathogens. PLoS ONE 7, e48508.
  • He, F., Chen, H., Probst-Kepper, M., Geffers, R., Eifes, S., Del Sol, A., Schughart, K., Zeng, A.P., and Balling, R. (2012). PLAU inferred from a correlation network is critical for suppressor function of regulatory T cells. Mol Syst Biol 8, 624.
  • Dengler, L., May, M., Wilk, E, Bahgat, M.M., and Schughart, K. Immunization with live virus vaccine protects highly susceptible DBA/2J mice from lethal influenza A H1N1 infection. Virology Journal, 9, 212.
  • T. Nedelko, H. Kollmus, F. Klawonn, S. Spijker, L. Lu, M. Heßman, R. Alberts, R. W. Williams, and K. Schughart. (2012) Distinct gene loci control the host response to influenza H1N1 virus infection in a time-dependent manner. BMC Genomics, 13:411.
  • Pommerenke, C., Wilk E., Srivastava B., Schulze, A., Novoselova, N., Alberts, R., Geffers, R., and Schughart, K. (2012). Systematic analysis of the dynamics in gene expression changes describes the multi-level host responses during the course of an influenza A infection. PLoS ONE, 7(7):e41169.
  • H. Kollmus, R. Post, M. Brielmeier, J. Fernández, H. Fuchs, C. McKerlie, L. Montoliu, P. J. Otaegui, M. Rebelo, H. Riedesel, J. Ruberte, R. Sedláček, M. Habré d´Angelis and K. Schughart (2012). Structural and functional concepts employed in current mouse phenotyping and archiving facilities. JAALAS, 51 (4),  418–435.
  • E. Wilk and K. Schughart. (2012). The mouse as model system to study host-pathogen-interactions in influenza A infections. Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol. 2, 177-205.
  • Collaborative Cross Consortium, including K. Schughart (2012). The Genome Architecture of the Collaborative Cross Mouse Genetic Reference Population. Genetics, 190, 389–401.
  • M. Bankstahl; C. J. Müller; E. Wilk; K. Schughart; W. Löscher (2012). Generation and characterization of pilocarpine-sensitive C57BL/6 mice as a model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Behav Brain Res. 230:182-91.
  • Alberts, R., Lu, L., Williams, R.W., and Schughart, K. (2012). Correction: Genome-wide analysis of the mouse lung transcriptome reveals novel molecular gene interaction networks and cell-specific expression signatures. Respir Res 13, 5; doi:10.1186/1465-9921-13-5.
  • Caroline Durrant, Morris A. Swertz, Rudi Alberts, Danny Arends, Steffen Möller, Richard Mott1, Pjotr Prins, Joeri K. van der Velde, Ritsert C. Jansen, Klaus Schughart. (2012) Bioinformatics tools and database resources for systems genetics analysis in mice – a short review and an evaluation of future needs. Briefings in Bioinformatics, 13(2):135-42.


  • R. Alberts, H. Chen, C. Pommerenke, A. B. Smit, S. Spijker, R. W. Williams, R. Geffers, D. Bruder and K. Schughart (2011) . Expression QTL mapping in regulatory and helper T cells from the BXD family of strains reveals novel cell-specific genes, gene-gene interactions and candidate genes for auto-immune disease. BMC Genomics, 12(1):610.
  • Blazejewska, P., Koscinski, L., Viegas, N., Anhlan, D., Ludwig, S., and Schughart, K. (2011). Pathogenicity of different PR8 influenza A virus variants in mice is determined by both viral and host factors. Virology 412, 36-45.
  • Bahgat, M.M., Blazejewska, P., and Schughart, K. (2011). Inhibition of lung serine proteases in mice: a potentially new approach to control influenza infection. Virol J 8, 27.
  • Alberts, R., Lu, L., Williams, R.W., and Schughart, K. (2011). Genome-wide analysis of the mouse lung transcriptome reveals novel molecular gene interaction networks and cell-specific expression signatures. Respir Res 12, 61.
  • M. J. Kas, R. S. Kahn, D. A. Collier, J. L. Waddington, J. Ekelund, D. J. Porteous, K. Schughart, and I. Hovatta. (2011). Translational neuroscience of schizophrenia: seeking a meeting of minds between mouse and man. Sci Transl Med. 3,102mr3.
  • K. Dimitrakopoulou, C. Tsimpouris, G. Papadopoulos, K. Sgarbas, C. Pommerenke, E. Wilk, K. Schughart and A. Bezerianos. (2011) Dynamic Gene Network Reconstruction from gene expression data in mice after Influenza A (H1N1) infection. . Journal of Clinical Bioinformatics, 1:27 doi:10.1186/2043-9113-1-27.
  • M. Akmatov, S. Krebs, M. Preusse, A. Gatzemeier, U. Frischmann, K. Schughart, and F. Pessler.  (2010) E-mail based symptomatic surveillance combined with self-collection of nasal swabs: A new tool for acute respiratory infection epidemiology. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2011.07.005.


  • Alberts, R., Srivastava, B., Wu, H., Viegas, N., Geffers, R., Klawonn, F., Novoselova, N., do Valle, T.Z., Panthier, J.J., and Schughart, K. (2010). Gene expression changes in the host response between resistant and susceptible inbred mouse strains after influenza A infection. Microbes Infect 12, 309-318.
  • Bertram, S.*, Glowacka, I.*, Blazejewska, P.*, Soilleux, E., Allen, P., Danisch, S., Steffen, I., Choi, S.Y., Park, Y., Schneider, H., K. Schughart, and S. Pöhlmann (2010). TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 facilitate trypsin-independent spread of influenza virus in Caco-2 cells. J Virol 84, 10016-10025. *equal contribution
  • Wu, H., Haist, V., Baumgartner, W., and Schughart, K. (2010). Sustained viral load and late death in Rag2-/- mice after influenza A virus infection. Virol J 7, 172.
  • Schughart, K. (2010). SYSGENET: a meeting report from a new European network for systems genetics. Mamm. Genome 21, 331-336.
  • do Valle, T.Z., Billecocq, A., Guillemot, L., Alberts, R., Gommet, C., Geffers, R., Calabrese, K., Schughart, K., Bouloy, M., Montagutelli, X., et al. (2010). A new mouse model reveals a critical role for host innate immunity in resistance to Rift Valley fever. J Immunol 185, 6146-6156.
  • Schofield, P.N., Eppig, J., Huala, E., de Angelis, M.H., Harvey, M., Davidson, D., Weaver, T., Brown, S., Smedley, D., Rosenthal, N., Schughart, K., Aidinis, V., Tocchini-Valentini, G., Hancock. J. (2010). Research funding. Sustaining the data and bioresource commons. Science 330, 592-593.
  • Alberts, R., and Schughart, K. (2010). QTLminer: identifying genes regulating quantitative traits. BMC Bioinformatics 11, 516.
  • Michaelson, J.J., Alberts, R., Schughart, K., and Beyer, A. (2010). Data-driven assessment of eQTL mapping methods. BMC Genomics 11, 502.
  • R. Alberts and K. Schughart (2010). High throughput gene expression analysis and the identification of expression QTLs. Chapter in: Gene Discovery for Disease Models: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, U.S.A.
  • Gruenberger, M., Alberts, R., Smedley, D., Swertz, M., Schofield, P., and Schughart, K. (2010). Towards the integration of mouse databases - definition and implementation of solutions to two use-cases in mouse functional genomics. BMC Res Notes 3, 16.
  • Swertz, M.A., K.J. Velde, B.M. Tesson, R.A. Scheltema, D. Arends, G. Vera, R. Alberts, M. Dijkstra, P. Schofield, K. Schughart, J.M. Hancock, D. Smedley, K. Wolstencroft, C. Goble, E.O. de Brock, A.R. Jones, H.E. Parkinson, and R.C. Jansen. (2010). XGAP: a uniform and extensible data model and software platform for genotype and phenotype experiments. Genome Biol. 11:R27.
  • Zouberakis, M., C. Chandras, M. Swertz, D. Smedley, M. Gruenberger, J. Bard, K. Schughart, N. Rosenthal, J.M. Hancock, P.N. Schofield, G. Kollias, and V. Aidinis. (2010). Mouse Resource Browser--a database of mouse databases. Database (Oxford). 2010:baq010.
  • Smedley, D., P. Schofield, C.K. Chen, V. Aidinis, C. Ainali, J. Bard, R. Balling, E. Birney, A. Blake, E. Bongcam-Rudloff, A.J. Brookes, G. Cesareni, C. Chandras, J. Eppig, P. Flicek, G. Gkoutos, S. Greenaway, M. Gruenberger, J.K. Heriche, A. Lyall, A.M. Mallon, D. Muddyman, F. Reisinger, M. Ringwald, N. Rosenthal, K. Schughart, M. Swertz, G.A. Thorisson, M. Zouberakis, and J.M. Hancock. (2010). Finding and sharing: new approaches to registries of databases and services for the biomedical sciences. Database (Oxford). 2010:baq014.


  • Srivastava, B., Blazejewska, P., Hessmann, M., Bruder, D., Geffers, R., Mauel, S., Gruber, A.D., and Schughart, K. (2009). Host genetic background strongly influences the response to influenza a virus infections. PLoS ONE 4, e4857.
  • Muller, C.J., Groticke, I., Hoffmann, K., Schughart, K., and Loscher, W. (2009). Differences in sensitivity to the convulsant pilocarpine in substrains and sublines of C57BL/6 mice. Genes Brain Behav 8, 481-492.
  • Fuchs, H., V. Gailus-Durner, T. Adler, J.A. Pimentel, L. Becker, I. Bolle, M. Brielmeier, J. Calzada-Wack, C. Dalke, N. Ehrhardt, N. Fasnacht, B. Ferwagner, U. Frischmann, W. Hans, S.M. Holter, G. Holzlwimmer, M. Horsch, A. Javaheri, M. Kallnik, E. Kling, C. Lengger, H. Maier, I. Mossbrugger, C. Morth, B. Naton, U. Noth, B. Pasche, C. Prehn, G. Przemeck, O. Puk, I. Racz, B. Rathkolb, J. Rozman, K. Schable, R. Schreiner, A. Schrewe, C. Sina, R. Steinkamp, F. Thiele, M. Willershauser, R. Zeh, J. Adamski, D.H. Busch, J. Beckers, H. Behrendt, H. Daniel, I. Esposito, J. Favor, J. Graw, G. Heldmaier, H. Hofler, B. Ivandic, H. Katus, M. Klingenspor, T. Klopstock, A. Lengeling, M. Mempel, W. Muller, S. Neschen, M. Ollert, L. Quintanilla-Martinez, P. Rosenstiel, J. Schmidt, S. Schreiber, K. Schughart, H. Schulz, E. Wolf, W. Wurst, A. Zimmer, and M. Hrabe de Angelis. 2009. The German Mouse Clinic: a platform for systemic phenotype analysis of mouse models. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 10:236-243.
  • Chandras C, Weaver T, Zouberakis M, Smedley D, Schughart K, Rosenthal N, Hancock JM, Kollias G, Schofield PN, Aidinis V (2009). Models for financial sustainability of biological databases and resources. Database: doi:10.1093/database/bap017

Publikationen aus früheren Jahren

  • W. Kramer, K. Schughart and H.-J. Fritz (1982) Directed mutagenesis of DNA cloned in filamentous phage: influence of hemimethylated GATC sites on marker recovery from restriction fragments. Nucleic Acids Research  10, 6475-6485.
  • H. Esche, M. Reuther and K. Schughart (1984) Early and late proteins of adenovirus type 12: translation mapping with RNA isolated from infected and transformed cells. In: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology  111 (W. Doerfler, ed.), pp. 91-106. Springer Verlag Berlin, 1984.
  • K. Schughart, E. Bause and H. Esche (1985) Structure and expression of adenovirus type 12 E1B 58K protein in infected and transformed cells: studies using antibodies directed against a synthetic peptide. Virus Research  3, 41-56.
  • K. Schughart, B. von Wilcken-Bergmann and H. Esche (1987) Expression of adenovirus type 12 E1b 58-kDa protein in Escherichia coli  and production of antibodies against a 58-kDa::'-galactosidase fusion protein. Gene  53, 173-180.
  • K. Schughart, M. F. Utset, A. Awgulewitsch and F. H. Ruddle (1988) Structure and expression of Hox-2.2, a murine homeobox-containing gene. PNAS  85, 5582-5586.
  • K. Schughart, M. F. Utset, A. Feinberg, L. D. Bogarad and F. H. Ruddle (1989) Homeobox-containing genes: implications for pattern formation during embryonic development in the mouse. In: Genetics of neuropsychiatric diseases. (L. Wetterberg, ed.), pp. 295-306, Macmillan Press, London, 1989.
  • K. Schughart, C. Kappen and F.H. Ruddle (1989) Murine homeobox genes: genome organization, structure, expression and evolution. British Journal of Cancer 58 Suppl. IX, 9-13.
  • C. Kappen, K. Schughart and F. H. Ruddle (1989) Organization and expression of homeobox genes in mouse and man. In: "Viral Oncogenesis and cell differentiation: The contributions of Charlotte Friend." New York City, 1989, Ann. Acad. Sci. 567, 243-252.
  • K. Schughart, D. Pravtcheva, M. S. Newman, L. W. Hunahan, Z. Jiang and F. H. Ruddle. (1989) Isolation and regional localization of the murine homeobox-containing gene Hox-3.3 to mouse chromosome region 15E. Genomics  5, 76-83.
  • C. Kappen, K. Schughart, and F.H. Ruddle (1989) Two steps in the evolution of Antennapedia-class vertebrate homeobox genes. PNAS 86, 5459-5463.
  • C. Kappen, K. Schughart and F.H. Ruddle (1989) Mammalian Antennapedia-class homeobox genes: organization, expression and evolution. In: Molecular genetics of early Drosophila and mouse development. (M.R. Capecchi, ed.) CSH Lab. Press, CSH, N.Y, 1989.
  • K. Schughart, C. Kappen and F.H. Ruddle (1989) Duplication of large genomic regions during the evolution of vertebrate homeobox genes. PNAS 86, 7067-7071.
  • J. Malicki, K. Schughart and W. McGinnis (1990) Mouse Hox-2.2 specifies thoracic segmental identity in Drosophila embryos and larvae. Cell 63, 961-967.
  • C.S. Sashikant, M. F. Utset, S.M. Violette, T.L. Wise, P. Einat, M. Einat, J.W. Pendleton, K.Schughart and F.H. Ruddle (1990) Homeobox genes in mouse Development. In: CRC Critical Reviews in Eucaryotic Gene Expression, pp. 207-245.
  • K. Schughart, C.J. Bieberich, R. Eid and F.H. Ruddle (1991) A regulatory region from the mouse Hox-2.2 promoter directs gene expression into developing limbs. Development 112, 807-811.
  • G. W. Byrne, C. Kappen, K. Schughart, M. Utset, L. Bogarad and F. H. Ruddle (1991) Analysis of regulatory genes using the transgenic mouse system. Biotechnology 16, 135-152.
  • R. Eid, H. Koseki and K. Schughart (1993) Analysis of LacZ reporter genes in transgenic embryos suggests the presence of several cis-acting elements in the murine Hoxb-6 gene. Developmental Dynamics 196, 205-216.
  • C. Kappen, K. Schughart and F.H. Ruddle (1993) Early evolutionary origin of major homeodomain sequence classes. Genomics 18, 54-70.
  • T. Guenther, M. Struwe, A. Aguzzi and K. Schughart (1994) open brain, a new mouse mutant with severe neural tube defects shows altered gene expression patterns in the developing spinal cord. Development 120, 3119-3130.
  • D. Becker, R. Eid and K. Schughart (1996) The limb/LPM enhancer of the murine Hoxb-6 gene: reporter gene analysis in transgenic embryos and studies of DNA-protein interactions. Pharmaceutica Acta Helvetiae 71, 29-35.
  • D. Becker, Z. Jiang, P. Knoedler, A. S. Deinhard, R. Eid, K. K. Kidd, C. S. Shashikant, F. H. Ruddle and K. Schughart (1996) Conserved regulatory element involved in the early onset of Hoxb-6 gene expression. Developmental Dynamics 205, 73-81.
  • R. Spoerle, T. Guenther, Struwe, M. and K. Schughart (1996) Severe defects in the formation of epaxial musculature in open brain (opb) mutant embryos. Development 122, 79-86.
  • K. Schughart, T. Guenther, Struwe, M. and R. Spoerle (1996). Using molecular anatomy to describe phenotypic defects in the mouse mutant open brain (opb). In: Aspects of Teratology. Eds. R. Vogel, J. FanghŠnel and J. Giebel, Tectum. Der Wissenschaftsverlag, Marburg 1996.
  • R. Spoerle, T. Guenther, M. Struwe and K. Schughart (1996). Defects in the development of dorsal spinal cord and epaxial musculature in opb mutant embryos. Ann. Anat. 178, 107-126.
  • J. Favor, R. Sandulache, A. Neuhaeuser-Klaus, W. Pretsch, B. Chatterjee, E. Senft, W. Wurst, V. Blanquet, P. Grimes, R. Spoerle and K. Schughart (1996). The mouse Pax2/1Neu mutation is identical to a human PAX2 mutation in a family with renal-coloboma syndrome and results in developmental defects of the brain, ear, eye and kidney. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 13870-13875.
  • T. Nagai, J. Aruga, S. Takada, A. P. McMahon, T. Guenther, R. Spoerle, K. Schughart and K. Mikoshiba (1997) The expression of the mouse Zic1, Zic2 and Zic3 gene suggests an essential role for Zic genes in body pattern formation. Developmental Biology 182, 299-131.
  • D. E. Cash, Bock, C. B., K. Schughart, E. Linney and M. Underhill (1997) Retinoic acid receptor alpha function in vertebrate limb skeletogenesis: A modulator of chondrogenesis. J. Cell Biol. 346, 445-458.
  • T. Guenther, R. Spoerle and K. Schughart (1997) The open brain (opb) mutation maps to Chromsome 1. Mammalian Genome 8, 583-585.
  • H. J. Geyer, K-W. Schramm, I. Scheunert, K. Schughart, J. Butters, W. Wurst, H. Greim, R. Kluge, C. E. W. Steinberg, A. Kettrup, B. Madhukar, J. R. Olson, M. A. Gallo (1997) Considerations on genetic and environmental factors that contribute to resistance or sensitivity of mammals including humans to toxicity of 2,3,7,8,-Tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds. Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety 36, 213-230.
  • K. Schughart, T. Guenther, R. Spoerle and Dietz. (1997). Patent Nr. DE 196 50 880 C1. Vorrichtung zur Durchfuehrung von Genexpressionsanalysen. Patent was not futher contiuned.
  • R. Spoerle and K. Schughart. (1997) System to identify individual somites and their derivatives in the developing mouse embryo. Developmental Dynamics 210 216-226.
  • R. Spoerle and K. Schughart (1997) Neural tube morphogenesis. Curr. Opin. Devel. Genet. 7 507-512.
  • V. Knezevic, R. DeSanto, K. Schughart, U. Huffstadt, C. Chiang, K. A. Mahon and S. Mackem (1997) Hoxd12 exerts opposing effects on preaxial and postaxial chondrogenic branches in the limb and regulates sonic hedgehog. Development 124, 4523-4536.
  • R. Bischoff, K. Schughart, H. Kolbe (1997). Compositions useful for transferring therapeutically active polynucleotides into a target cell, and their use in gene therapy. European Patent EP0890362.
  • R. Spoerle and K. Schughart (1998). Paradox segmentation along inter- and intrasomitic borderlines is followed by dysmorphology of the axial skeleton in the open brain (opb) mouse mutant. Developmental Genetics 22, 359-373.
  • Balling, R., Hrabe de Angelis, M., Schughart, K., Wolf, E. (1998) We need more mutants: plans for a large ENU mouse mutagenesis screen. OECD Proceedings Novel systems for the study of human disease.
  • S. Braun, C. Jenny, C. Thiodellet, F. Perraud, M-C Claudepierre, C. Gerard, F., Langle-Rouault, K. Schughart, A. Pavirani (1999) Glucocorticoids increase gene transfer in vitro. FEBS Lett 454, 277-282.
  • C. Grimm, R. Spoerle, T.E. Schmidt, I. Adler, J. Adamski, K. Schughart and J. Graw (1999) Isolation and embryonic expression of the novel mouse gene Hic1, the homologue of HIC1, a candidate gene for the Miller-Dieker syndrome. Human Molecular Genetics 8, 697-710.
  • Y. Wang, R. Spoerle, L. Richardson. T. Paperna, K. Schughart and U. Francke (1999) Characterization and expression pattern of the frizzled gene Fzd9, the mouse homologue of FZD9 that is deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome. Genomics 57, 235-248.
  • K. Schughart, R. Bischoff, D. Ali Hadji, O. Boussif, F. Perraud, N. Accart, U.B. Rasmussen, A. Pavirani, N. van Rooijen, H.V.J. Kolbe (1999) Effect of liposome-encapsulated clodronate pretreatment on synthetic vector-mediated gene expression in vivo. Gene Therapy 6, 448-453.
  • U. Rasmussen, M. Benchaibi, V. Meyer, Y. Schlesinger and K. Schughart (1999) Novel human gene transfer vectors: evaluation of wild type and recombinant animal adenoviruses in human-derived cells. Human Gene Therapy 16, 2587- 2599.
  • K. Schughart, R. Bischoff, U.B. Rasmussen, D. Ali Hadji, F. Perraud, N. Accart, O. Boussif, N. Silvestre, Y. Cordier, A. Pavirani, M. Courtney, H.V.J. Kolbe (1999) Solvoplexes, a new type of non-viral vectors for intrapulmonary gene delivery. Human Gene Therapy 10, 2891-2905.
  • O. Meyer, K. Schughart, H.V.J. Kolbe (2000) Multiple expression of human interferon-b can be achieved upon repeated administration of optimized pcTG90 lipoplex. Gene Therapy 7, 1606-1611.
  • J. Streicher, M.A. Donat, B. Strauss, R. Sporle, K. Schughart, G.B. Mueller. (2000) Computer-based three-dimensional visualization of developmental gene expression. Nature Genetics 25,147-52.
  • T.E. Tsang, W. Shawlot, S.J. Kinder, A. Kobayashi, K.M. Kwan, K. Schughart, A. Kania, T.M. Jessell, R.R. Behringer, P.P.L. Tam (2000). Lim1 activity is required for intermediate mesoderm differentiation in the mouse embryo. Developmental Biology 223, 77-99.
  • Hrabé de Angelis M., Flaswinkel H., Fuchs H., Rathkolb B., Soewarto D., Marschall S., Heffner S., Pargent W., Wuensch K., Jung M., Reis A., Richter T., Alessandrini F., Jakob T., Fuchs E., Kolb H., Kremmer E., Behrendt H., Ring J., Zimmer A., Pfeffer K., Schughart K., Wolf E., and Balling R. (2000) Genome wide large scale production of mutant mice by ENU mutagenesis. Nature Genetics 25, 444-447.
  • Fuchs H, Schughart K, Wolf E, Balling R, Hrabe de Angelis M (2000) Screening for dysmorphological abnormalities-a powerful tool to isolate new mouse mutants. Mammalian Genome 11, 528-30.
  • U. Rasmussen, V. Schreiber, K. Schughart (2001). Patent application. Transgene.
  • K. Schughart and U.B. Rasmussen (2002) Methods for the preparation and use of solvoplex: A synthetic vector for intrapulmonary gene delivery. In: Gene Therapy Protocols (ed. J.R. Morgan), Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, USA, pp. 83-94.
  • U. Rasmussen, V. Schreiber, H. Schultz, F. Mischler, and K. Schughart (2002) Tumor cell-targeting by phage-displayed peptides. Cancer Gene Therapy 9, 606-612.
  • K. Schughart and N. Accart (2003) Use of adenovirus vectors for functional gene analysis in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane. Biotechniques 34, 178-183.
  • E. Wollscheid-Lengeling, R. Müller, R. Balling and K. Schughart (2004) Maintaining Your Immune System--One Method for Enhanced Longevity. Science Aging Knowledge Environment Vol. 2004, Issue 1, pp. pe2.
  • Rittner, K.; Schreiber, V.; Schughart, K.; Futin, N.; Ledoux, C., and Lusky, M. (2004) Studies on the Targeting of Adenoviral Vectors Carrying a Tumor-Cell Specific Peptide. Molecular Therapy 9, 46.
  • K. Schughart and H. Schlender (2007) Das Zusammenspiel der Gene. BIOspektrum - special edition for the Biotechnica 2007, Vol. 13, p 8-10 (print run/Auflage: 30.000)
  • K. Schughart and G. Churchill (2007), 6th Annual Meeting of the Complex Trait Consortium. Mammalian Genome, 18, 683-685.




Audio Podcast

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  • Das Grippemissverständnis - Infektion im DoppelpackEine echte Grippe ist eine schwere - oft tödlich verlaufenden - Krankheit. Was die wenigsten Wissen: die Grippeviren allein bringen uns nur in den seltensten Fällen um. Was uns so gefährlich wird, ist eine Superinfektion mit Bakterien. Sabine Stegemann hat die Zusammenhänge genau untersucht - und dabei eine sehr alte und eigentlich sehr logische Theorie vom Sockel gestoßen. Folgen Sie ihr in das S2 Labor...
  • Der Wirt macht den UnterschiedDer Eine bekommt sie schon, wenn er nur davon hört und der Andere nicht einmal wenn er von Kranken umgeben ist: die Grippe. Dass das nicht an den Influenza-Viren liegt, sondern an uns selbst, hat Klaus Schughart herausgefunden. Er erklärt Ihnen was es mit der seltsamen Anfälligkeit für Infektionen auf sich hat...
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